The Digestive System (Lab)

Consists of organs of the gastrointestinal tract (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and
large intestines) and accessory organs (teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and
pancreas) that assist in the digestive processes
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Terms in this set (23)
The inner lining of the GI tract; a mucous membrane

Composed of:
• --------- - protection, secretion, and absorption
• ---------- - support to epithelium; contains blood and
lymphatic vessels for nutrient absorption
• --------------- - throws the stomach and intestinal mucous
membrane into many small folds, which
increases the surface area for digestion
and absorption
Consists of areolar connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularisSubmucosa- Mouth, pharynx, superior and middle esophagus: Skeletal muscle for swallowing - External anal sphincter: Skeletal muscle for defecation - Throughout the rest of the tract, consists of smooth muscle, which helps break down food, mix it with digestive secretions, and propel it along the tractMuscularis4.1 ------ - Present in GI tract organs suspended in the abdominal cavity - Composed of areolar connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium 4.2 ---------- - Present only in the esophagus (lacks a serosa)- Serosa - AdventitiaAlso referred to as the oral / buccal cavity, is formed by the cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tongueMOUTHGlands that release a secretion called saliva into the oral cavitySALIVARY GLANDSkeeps the mucous membranes of the mouth and pharynx moist; cleanses the mouth and teeth; lubricates, dissolves, and begins the chemical breakdown of food (salivary amylase)SalivaInvolved in swallowing or deglutition, the movement of food from the mouth into the stomachESOPHAGUSMixes saliva, food, and gastric juice to form chyme; serves as reservoir for food before release into the small intestine; secretes gastric juiceSTOMACHAn organ made up of small clusters of glandular epithelial cellsPANCREAS- The heaviest gland of the body - Secretes bile, an excretory product and digestive secretion whose bile salts emulsify dietary fats and aid in their absorptionLIVERStores and concentrates bile from the liver; delivers bile into the duodenum via the common bile ductGALLBLADDERA long tube where most digestion and absorption of nutrients occursSMALL INTESTINECompletes absorption (water, ions, vitamins), breakdown of amino acids and production of certain vitamins by bacteria, formation of feces, and expulsion of feces from the body (defecation)LARGE INTESTINE