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Terms in this set (27)
A nurse uses the term family policy. Which of the following explains what the nurse is describing?
a. Anything that is done by the government that directly or indirectly affects families
b. Laws that affect families and family living
c. Requirements for immunizations for the entire family
d. Healthy People 2020 guidelines for healthy familie
Family policy demonstrates a government's understanding of families and its role in promoting their health. Anything that is done by the government that directly or indirectly affects families is considered family policy. It includes more than laws, requirements for immunizations, or Healthy People 2020 guidelines.
A nurse is assessing a family. Which of the following behaviors would the nurse recognize as being learned within the family structure?
a. Smoking habits and heart disease
b. Health values and health habits
c. Chronic illness and disease risk
d. Societal norms and values
Health values, health habits, and health risk perception are effected by and acted out within the family environment. Heart disease and chronic illness are not learned behaviors. Societal norms are not learned through the family structure.
The process of assessing the presence of specific factors within each category that have been identified as being associated with an increased likelihood of an illness or an unhealthy event is called health:
a. risk reduction.
b. risk appraisal.
c. risk factors.
d. life-event risk.
Assessing the presence of specific factors within categories that are associated with increased likelihood of illness is called health risk appraisal. Health risk reduction is based on the assumption that decreasing the number of risks or the magnitude of risk will result in a lower probability of an undesired event occurring. Risk factors are things that put one at risk for development of a disease. Life-event risks often occur during transitions from one developmental stage to another.
Which behavioral risk factor is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States?
a. Homicide or suicide
b. Motor vehicle accidents
c. Chronic disease
d. Substance use and abuse
A major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States is substance use and abuse. Drug use, drunk driving, smoking, and exposure to second-hand smoke all are part of this problem. Chronic disease and motor vehicle accidents are not behavioral risk factors. Homicide and suicide are not the major contributors to morbidity and mortality
Which statement best describes the effects of life events on family health risk?
a. Normative events require very little change in family structures and roles.
b. Positive events are unlikely to place stress on a family.
c. Normative and nonnormative events pose potential risks to the health of families.
d. Negative life events require change and place stress on a family.
Families can experience stress as a result of normative and nonnormative events. If the event is normative, or anticipated, then it is possible for families to identify needed resources, make plans, learn new skills, or otherwise prepare for the event and its consequences. More often, nonnormative events are unpleasant. Both normative and nonnormative life events pose potential risks to the health of families.
Which health risk category is one of the foremost predictors of health?
Economic health risks are one of the foremost predictors of health. Economic risk is determined by the relationship between family financial resources and the demands on those resources. Social risks, such as living in high-crime neighborhoods or in communities without adequate health resources, are receiving more attention, but is not considered to be one of the foremost predictors of health. Biological risk can be determined through a genogram and can consider risk for development of major illnesses or conditions, but is not one of the foremost predictors of health. Lifestyle risk relates to personal health habits that continue to be a major contributor to the causes of morbidity and mortality, but is not considered to be the foremost predictor of health.
According to Pender, one factor that motivates individuals to participate in health behaviors is the:
a. reduction of health risk by examination of the concepts of family risk related to each individual.
b. desire to protect health by using behaviors directed toward decreasing the probability of specific illness or dysfunction.
c. use of the Neuman Systems Model to define family health in terms of systems stability.
d. realization that health can be defined in many ways and within many cultures.
Understanding individual and family health behaviors requires looking at the concepts related to motivation and desire for good health. Pender uses Pender's Health Promotion Model to discuss two major factors that motivate individuals to participate in positive health behaviors. One is a desire to promote one's own health and the second is a desire to protect one's health.
A family has experienced a nonnormative life event. Which of the following best describes this situation?
a. Adoption of a child
b. Loss of a job
c. Marriage of a child
d. Retirement from work
Nonnormative life events are unpredictable; loss of a job is an unpredictable event. Adoption of a child, marriage of a child, and retirement from work are events that can be planned and anticipated, which are considered to be normative life events.
A family has experienced a family crisis. Which of the following best describes this situation?
a. Husband loses job and family is now homeless
b. Child dies and parents go to grief counseling
c. Mother is hospitalized for 2 weeks and neighbors help care for the children
d. Nurse goes to home to give chemotherapy to child with cancer
A family crisis occurs when the family is not able to cope with an event and becomes disorganized or dysfunctional. This occurs when the demands of the situation exceed the resources of the family, a family crisis exists. The best example of this would be when a husband loses his job and the family becomes homeless. Parents seeking grief counseling after a death of a child, neighbors assisting to care for children, and a nurse giving a child chemotherapy at home all demonstrate appropriate coping mechanisms, although all of these events can cause additional stress for the family.
A client is experiencing a social risk. Which of the following best describes this risk?
a. Inadequate housing
b. Lack of education
c. High-crime neighborhood
d. Lack of insurance
A high-crime neighborhood is a social risk. Inadequate housing, not being educated, and not being insured are economic risks.
The nurse asked the family about its financial resources and the demands on these resources. Which type of risk factor is being assessed?
A nursing asking a family about financial resources is an example of assessing their economic risks. Economic risk is determined by the relationship between family financial resources and the demands on those resources. An example of social risk would be living in high-crime neighborhoods or in communities without adequate health resources. Biological risk considers risk for development of major illnesses or conditions and may be assessed through a genogram. Lifestyle risk relates to personal health habits.
A nurse is using a genogram when assessing a family risk. Which of the following types of risks is being assessed?
The genogram is an effective technique for assessing biological family risks. Economic risk is determined by the relationship between family financial resources and the demands on those resources. An example of social risk would be living in high-crime neighborhoods or in communities without adequate health resources. An ecomap provides information useful in assessing a family's social risks. Biological risk considers risk for development of major illnesses or conditions and may be assessed through a genogram. Lifestyle risk relates to personal health habits.
A nurse is using an ecomap. Which of the following best describes the situation that the nurse is experiencing?
a. Assessing a family's biological risks
b. Considering a family's economic risks
c. Discussing a family's lifestyle risks
d. Examining a family's social risks
An ecomap provides information useful in assessing a family's social risks. The genogram is an effective technique for assessing biological family risks. Economic risk is determined by the relationship between family financial resources and the demands on those resources. Biological risk considers risk for development of major illnesses or conditions and may be assessed through a genogram. Lifestyle risk relates to personal health habits.
A nurse is assessing the health risks of a family. Which of the following health risks would the family be most likely to voluntarily assume?
a. Newly built power plant
b. Smoking cigarettes
c. Speeding vehicles near playground
d. Industrial pollution
Voluntarily assumed risks are tolerated better than those imposed by others. Smoking cigarettes is a voluntarily assumed risk as a personal health choice. A newly built power plant, speeding vehicles, and industrial pollution are all risks that one does not have personal control over.
15. A nurse is discussing internal family coping strategies with a family following a family crisis. Which of the following would the nurse be explaining?
a. Asking a distant relative for a loan
b. Talking to relatives about stresses and worries
c. Attending a local worship service
d. Using public assistance to obtain food stamp
An internal coping strategy is sharing thoughts and feelings with others. Attending worship services and using public assistance are also potential strategies for coping, but these are external strategies.
Which statement is true about transitions?
a. Transitions are stressful events for all families.
b. Transitions require coping skills, which must be taught to some families.
c. Transitions address the family skills necessary to meet developmental goals.
d. Transitions present new situations and demands for families.
Transitions present new situations and demands for families that may require a change in behaviors, schedules, and patterns of communication. Transitions may not be stressful events for all families. Transitions do not necessarily require that coping skills be taught. Transitions do not address family skills necessary to meet development goals, rather they allow families to use their skills to cope with the transition.
A nurse assists a family to obtain food stamps. Which of the following best describes the purpose of this resource?
a. Provide support for basic needs
b. Offer insurance for the uninsured
c. Provide health-related services to families
d. Allow nongovernmental agencies to operate more effectively
The purpose of government resources for families, such as food stamps, is support for basic needs. Food stamps do not provide health insurance or health-related services to families. Food stamps are part of a government resource/program.
Which is a main disadvantage to home visits?
a. Convenience for the client
b. Time spent with one client
c. Client control of the setting
d. Ability to individualize services
Time spent with one client is one of the disadvantages to home visits. Other disadvantages are cost of pre-visit preparation, travel to and from the home, and post-visit preparation. Advantages include client convenience, client control for the setting, availability of an option for those clients unwilling or unable to travel, the ability to individualize services, and a natural, relaxed environment for the discussion of concerns and needs.
A nurse is completing the post-visit phase of a home visit. Which of the following activities is the nurse most likely to complete?
a. Document the visit and services provided
b. Conduct a health teaching session
c. Plan the next home visit
d. Seek information about community resources for referrals
A major task of the post-visit phase is documenting the visit and the services provided. Conducting a health teaching session would occur during the in-home phase. Planning the next home visit is part of the termination phase. Seeking information about community resources for referral occurs during the in-home phase.
A nurse is in the beginning phase of contracting with a family. Which of the following activities will most likely occur during this phase?
a. Mutual division of responsibilities
b. Mutual development of a plan
c. Mutual setting of time limits
d. Mutual implementation of the plan
During the beginning phase of contracting with a family, mutual development of a plan occurs. Mutual division of responsibilities, setting of time limits, and implementation of the plan all occur during the working phase.
A nurse clarifies the purpose of a home visit with a family. Which of the following phases of the home visit process is occurring?
The initiation phase also includes clarifying the source of referral and sharing information regarding the purpose of a home visit with the family. Some aspects of the pre-visit phase include reviewing the referral, addressing personal safety concerns, and determining if the home visit is required or voluntary. The in-home phase is the actual visit to the home. The major task of the post-visit phase is documenting the visit and services provided.
A nurse plans to review the home visit with the family. Which of the following phases of the home visit process is most likely occurring?
The termination phase is the time to plan for future visits. The initiation phase also includes clarifying the source of referral and sharing information regarding the purpose of a home visit with the family. The in-home phase is the actual visit to the home. The major task of the post-visit phase is documenting the visit and services provided.
A nurse is implementing the termination phase of a home visit. Which of the following nursing activities is most likely being demonstrated?
a. Conducting a physical assessment
b. Identifying household members
c. Summarizing accomplishments of the visit
d. Teaching about health
Summarizing the accomplishments of the visit provides a basis for planning further home visits, which is part of the termination phase. Conducting a physical assessment and teaching about health are parts of the in-home visit phase. Identifying household members is part of the pre-visit phase.
A nurse uses a behavioral health risk survey and identifies the factors leading to obesity in the family. Which of the following levels of prevention best describes the nurse's action?
a. Primary prevention
b. Secondary prevention
c. Tertiary prevention
Secondary prevention focuses on early detection and prompt treatment of disease, injury, or disability. Primary prevention focuses on prevention of illness and injury before it occurs. Tertiary prevention focuses on treatment and rehabilitation. Assessment is not a level of prevention.
A nurse is completing an initial home visit with a family. Which of the following nursing actions is most important to include?
a. Explore the client's ideas and perceptions about the purpose of the visits
b. Identify with the client the contradictions in the client's words and health behaviors
c. Refer the client to others in the health team
d. Teach the client about solutions to his or her problems
During the initial home visit, it is important to explore the client's ideas and perception about the purpose of the visits. Teaching the client and client referral are part of the in-home visit phase.
Which are lifestyle habits that have been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality? (Select all that apply.)
a. Sleeping 7 to 8 hours daily
b. Eating breakfast
c. Eating between meals
d. Vigorous daily physical activity
e. Maintaining full-time employment
ANS: A, B
Sleeping 7 to 8 hours daily and eating breakfast have been shown to decrease morbidity and mortality. Eating between meals is discouraged and regular exercise, not vigorous exercise, is encouraged. Maintaining full-time employment is not related to a change in morbidity or mortality rates.
Which of the following are benefits of home visits? (Select all that apply.)
a. Promote health for adolescent mothers
b. Identify barriers and provide support for family health promotion goals
c. Allow families to maintain a sense of control in meeting their health care needs
d. Prolong the nurse-client relationship
e. Establishment of healthy behaviors
ANS: B, C
Some of the benefits of home visits include identifying barriers and support for family health promotion goals and allowing families to maintain a sense of control in meeting their health care needs.
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