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Parenchyma cell

the most common type of plant cell- stores starch, oils, and water for the plant

Collenchyma cell

a flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the plant without restricting growth; primary cell wall unevenly thickened; found at edges of young stem, edges of petioles (leaf stalks), and along veins of leaves

sclerenchyma cell

A rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking protoplasts and possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity.

dermal tissue

outer covering or "skin" of a plant

ground tissue

Makes up the majority of the plant and is found as a layer beneath the epidermis. It provides strength and support to the plant; in the roots is involved in food and water storage; and in the leaves, it is the location where photosynthesis occurs.

vascular tissue

Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.


Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant.


vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis

cohesion-tension theory

theory that explains how the physical properties of water allow it to move through the xylem of plants


the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants

pressure-flow model

a well-supported theory that explains how food, or sap, moves through a plant (explains how sugars move through the phloem)

vascular cylinder

central region of a root that includes the vascular tissue—xylem and phloem

root hair

tiny projection from the outer surface, or epidermis, of a root

root cap

thimble-shaped mass of cells covering and protecting the growing tip of a root


undifferentiated tissue from which new cells are formed, as at the tip of a stem or root

fibrous root

part of a root system in which roots branch to such an extent that no single root grows larger than the rest


primary root found in some plants that grows longer and thicker than other roots

primary growth

Growth produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.

secondary growth

pattern of plant growth in which stems increase in width


broad part of leaf where most photosynthesis occurs


the slender stem that supports the blade of a leaf


The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.

guard cell

Pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing.

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