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23 terms

chapter 21 plant structure and function Biology

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Parenchyma cell
the most common type of plant cell- stores starch, oils, and water for the plant
Collenchyma cell
a flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the plant without restricting growth; primary cell wall unevenly thickened; found at edges of young stem, edges of petioles (leaf stalks), and along veins of leaves
sclerenchyma cell
A rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking protoplasts and possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity.
dermal tissue
outer covering or "skin" of a plant
ground tissue
Makes up the majority of the plant and is found as a layer beneath the epidermis. It provides strength and support to the plant; in the roots is involved in food and water storage; and in the leaves, it is the location where photosynthesis occurs.
vascular tissue
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
xylem
Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant.
phloem
vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
cohesion-tension theory
theory that explains how the physical properties of water allow it to move through the xylem of plants
transpiration
the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
pressure-flow model
a well-supported theory that explains how food, or sap, moves through a plant (explains how sugars move through the phloem)
vascular cylinder
central region of a root that includes the vascular tissue—xylem and phloem
root hair
tiny projection from the outer surface, or epidermis, of a root
root cap
thimble-shaped mass of cells covering and protecting the growing tip of a root
meristem
undifferentiated tissue from which new cells are formed, as at the tip of a stem or root
fibrous root
part of a root system in which roots branch to such an extent that no single root grows larger than the rest
taproot
primary root found in some plants that grows longer and thicker than other roots
primary growth
Growth produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.
secondary growth
pattern of plant growth in which stems increase in width
blade
broad part of leaf where most photosynthesis occurs
petiole
the slender stem that supports the blade of a leaf
mesophyll
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
guard cell
Pairs of cells that surround stomata and control their opening and closing.