"Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyizing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action."
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"Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyizing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action."
Some interviewers will give you a ... scenario or problem, and ask you to use critical thinking skills to solve it.hypotheticalPart of critical thinking is the ability to carefully examine something, whether it is a problem, a set of data, or a text. People with analytical skills can examine information, understand what it means, and properly explain to others the implications of that information.analysisOften, you will need to share your conclusions with your employers or with a group of colleagues. You might also need to engage in critical thinking in a group.CommunicationYou might need to spot patterns in the information you are looking at or come up with a solution that no one else has thought of before.Creativityyou need to be able to put aside any assumptions or judgments and merely analyze the information you receive. You need to be objective, evaluating ideas without bias.Open-Mindednessinvolves analyzing a problem, generating and implementing a solution, and assessing the success of the plan. Employers don't simply want employees who can think about information critically. They also need to be able to come up with practical solutionsproblem solvingA Brief History of the Idea of Critical Thinking---The intellectual roots of critical thinking are as ancient as its etymology, traceable, ultimately, to the teaching practice and vision of ...Socrates 2,500 years agoHe demonstrated that persons may have power and high position and yet be deeply confused and irrational.Socrates... is the best known critical thinking teaching strategy. In his mode of questioning, Socrates highlighted the need in thinking for clarity and logical consistency."Socratic Questioning"Middle Age---heightened our awareness not only of the potential power of reasoning but also of the need for reasoning to be systematically cultivated and "cross-examined."Thomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica)Renaissance (15th and 16th Centuries)---a flood of scholars in Europe began to think critically about religion, art, society, human nature, law, and freedom. They proceeded with the assumption that most of the domains of human life were in need of searching analysis and critique.Renaissance (15th and 16th Centuries)Renaissance scholars:Colet, Erasmus, and Moore in England.was explicitly concerned with the way we misuse our minds in seeking knowledge. He recognized explicitly that the mind cannot safely be left to its natural tendencies.Francis BaconIn his book The Advancement of Learning, he argued for the importance of studying the world empirically. He laid the foundation for modern science with his emphasis on the information-gathering processes.Francis Baconcalled attention to the fact that most people, if left to their own devices, develop bad habits of thought (which he called "idols")Francis Baconthe ways our mind naturally tends to trick itselfIdols of the tribethe ways we misuse wordsIdols of the market-placeour tendency to become trapped in conventional systems of thoughtIdols of the theaterthe problems in thinking when based on blind rules and poor instructionIdols of the schoolswrote Rules For the Direction of the Mind rgued for the need for a special systematic disciplining of the mind to guide it in thinking. He articulated and defended the need in thinking for clarity and precision.Descartesprinciple of systematic doubt. Every part of thinking, he argued, should be questioned, doubted, and tested.Descartesdeveloped a model of a new social order, Utopia, in which every domain of the present world was subject to critique.Sir Thomas MooreThe Prince critically assessed the politics of the day, and laid the foundation for modern critical political thought. He refused to assume that government functioned as those in power said it didMachiavelliNeither accepted the traditional picture of things dominant in the thinking of their day. Neither accepted as necessarily rational that which was considered "normal" in their culture.Hobbes and LockeBoth looked to the critical mind to open up new vistas of learning.Hobbes and Lockeadopted a naturalistic view of the world in which everything was to be explained by evidence and reasoning.Hobbesdefended a common sense analysis of everyday life and thought. laid the theoretical foundation for critical thinking about basic human rights and the responsibilities of all governments to submit to the reasoned criticism of thoughtful citizens.LockeSceptical Chymist severely criticized the chemical theory that had preceded himBoyledeveloped a far-reaching framework of thought which roundly criticized the traditionally accepted world view.NewtonThey all began with the premise that the human mind, when disciplined by reason, is better able to figure out the nature of the social and political worldBayle, Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot [French Enlightenment]reason must turn inward upon itself, in order to determine weaknesses and strengths of thought. valued disciplined intellectual exchange authority must submit in one way or another to the scrutiny of reasonable critical questioning.Bayle, Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Diderot.Eighteenth Century---Wealth of Nations Declaration of Independence Critique of Pure Reason.Adam Smith Immanuel Kant19th Century---critical thought was extended even further into the domain of human social life by ... and ...Comte and Spencer.Applied to the problems of capitalism, it produced the searching social and economic critique of ...Karl Marx.Applied to the history of human culture and the basis of biological life, it led to ... Descent of Man.Darwin'sApplied to the unconscious mind, it is reflected in the works of ...Sigmund Freud.Applied to cultures, it led to the establishment of the field of ...Anthropological studies.Applied to language, it led to the field of ... and to many deep probings of the functions of symbols and language in human life.Linguistics20th Century---published a land-breaking study of the foundations of sociology and anthropology, Folkways, in which he documented the tendency of the human mind to think sociocentrically and the parallel tendency for schools to serve the (uncritical) function of social indoctrinationWilliam Graham Sumner"Criticism is the examination and test of propositions of any kind which are offered for acceptance, in order to find out whether they correspond to reality or not."SumnerFrom his work, we have increased our sense of the pragmatic basis of human thought (its instrumental nature), and especially its grounding in actual human purposes, goals, and objectives.John DeweyFrom the work of .... we have increased our awareness not only of the importance of concepts in human thought, but also of the need to analyze concepts and assess their power and limitations.Ludwig WittgensteinFrom the work of ... , we have increased our awareness of the egocentric and sociocentric tendencies of human thought and of the special need to develop critical thought which is able to reason within multiple standpoints, and to be raised to the level of "conscious realization."PiagetFrom the contribution of ... , we have learned how easily the human mind is self-deceived, how easily it unconsciously constructs illusions and delusions, how easily it rationalizes and stereotypes, projects and scapegoats.depth-psychologyThe Common Denominators of Critical Thinking Are the Most Important By-products of the History of Critical Thinking---every domain of human thought, and within every use of reasoning within any domain, it is now possible to question:>ends and objectives, >status and wording of questions, >sources >method and quality of information collection >mode of judgment and reasoning >concepts that make that reasoning possible, the assumptions >implications that follow from their use, >point of view or frame of referenceCharacteristics of a Critical Thinker---to be more aware of the world around us. Take mental notes of relevant details, which you can use to develop deeper insight and understanding of the world.Observationkeep an open mind, propels you to gain deeper knowledge. Without it, there would be fewer discoveries and fewer inventions. There would be less radical principles.Curiosityperson is able to distinguish facts from opinions, logic from emotions and reality from wishful thinking.Objectivitystate of being aware of your own manner of thinking and train of thoughts. It means knowing when to shift thoughts or to stop altogether. (Reflection/Meta-cognition) - thinking about what you're thinking about.Introspectionrelies on observation - on gathering and evaluating evidence so you can come to a meaningful conclusionAnalytical Thinkingverifying the sources of the information. Helps you understand your own biases and question your preconceived notions.Identifying Biasesyou should not be distrcted by the reputation of the source, the complexity of the data and the popularity of the information. Look at the relevance of the topic.Determining relevanceability to extrapolate meaning from data and discover potential outcomes when assessing a scenario.Inferencebeing sentimental and emotional can skew our perception of a situation. However, the point of having compassion is to have concern for others and to value the welfare of other people. "Putting ourselves into others' shoes."Compassion and empathywillingness to acknowledge one's shortcomings and see one's positive attributes in an accurate way. Makes us aware of our own assets and flaws, which shows how open minded you are and willing to learn. "I am third"Humilityyou acknowledge that everything can change and has to be changed when deemed necessary.Willing to challenge the status quocritical thinkers do not jump to conclusions right away. They approach a question or situation with an open mind and embrace other opinions.Open-mindednesscritical thinkers do not allow their logic and reasoning to become clouded by illusions and misconceptions.Awareness of common thinking errorsThree types of common errors in thinkingcircular reasoning Cognitive shortcut bias Confusing correlation with causationin which the premise of an argument or a conclusion is used as support for the argument itself.Circular reasoningin which you stubbornly stick to a favored view or argument when other more effective possibilities or explanations exist.Cognitive shortcut biasIn other words, asserting that when two things happen together, one causes the other. Without direct evidence, this assumption isn't justified.Confusing correlation with causationIn general, though, a person is said to be an effective communication when the 7Cs of effective communications are observed both in oral and written forms: clarity, clarity, conciseness, concreteness, correctness, coherence, completeness and courtesy.Effective communicationCreative thinkers reject standardized formats for problem solving. They think outside the box and dare to defy standards when deemed more beneficial. They have a wide range of interests and adopt multiple perspectives on a problem. They are also open to experimenting with different methods and considering different viewpoints.Creative thinkingis often classified into two: active listening and passive listening. Both involve intent listening, which is good as it shows genuine interest, but between the two, only active listening shows adequate feedback. This is known as the precursor to assertiveness as one has to participate in the discussion first before asserting opinions.Active listeningthe challenges and barriers to critical thinking---It is merely the ability to understand why things are the way they are and to understand the potential consequences of actions.Critical thinkinga natural tendency to view everything in relation to oneself, sometimes to a point of having narcissistic or messianic mindsets. This type of thinking leads to the inability to sympathize with others or analyze and evaluate various perspectives.Egocentric ThinkingProblem arises when initial victory or compliment gets into their head, making them think that one opportune moment of success in the past can define all of their future actions and decisionsEgocentric Thinkingis described as a mental phenomenon where people belonging to the same group adopt the same manner of thinking and the same principles, regardless of how irrational or illogical they are, for the sake of maintaining a harmonious relationship or reputation.GroupthinkThis is how online trends start, as people start supporting trending opinions to feel relevant, acknowledged and given importance, to point when they no longer care if what they say online reflects their true opinions and values or notGroupthinkyou do not pay attention to what is going on around you. You only pay attention to your point of view from atop, not minding what really happens on the ground at face value.Drone MentalityThis mentality is dangerous in a classroom because learners forget how to respond to new circumstances. It also causes them to shy away from challenges for the sake of ease and convenience. Teachers are students should be in constant connection with each otherDrone MentalityUnwanted assumptions and stereotyping lead to .... Commercialism and capitalism do not seem to help either as they dominate media with information controlled by profit-based conditioningThe ability to think outside of the spectrum is a priceless asset because most students do not realize they are being conditioned to think a certain way. Thus, completely owning one's thoughts is a special characteristic that not everyone gets to enjoySocial ConditioningTeachers can help their learners by presenting objective information and then by subsequently providing different interpretations, which may be used by students as examples to create their own interpretations later on.Social Conditioningthey prevent the thinker from being fair, inquisitive and open-minded. This kind of thinking can also prevent an individual from using experience, reasoning and common sense to make informed decisionsBiased ExperiencesIt is especially important that teachers do their best to create a learning schedule that is not hindered by time constraints. it is of utmost importance for all learners to clearly identify and understand their goals in life, which should comprise their priority list.Time Pressureundermine creativity, which, consequentially, leaves no room for other suggestions for problem-solving. If learners believe no better solution to a problem exists, a teacher must have students question their logic. Critical thinkers do not accept information presented in front of them right away. They sort out and filter what needs to be accepted and what needs to be rejected. That is only possible if you keep asking questions and challenging the veracity of informationIntolerance and Arrogancecritical thinking and critical reading---is definite as a technique for discovering information and ideas within a textcritical readingis a technique for evaluating information and ideas, and for deciding what to accept and believe.critical thinkingrefers to a careful, active, reflective, analytic readingcritical readinginvolves reflecting on the validity of what you have read in light of our prior knowledge and understanding of the world.critical thinking... allows us to monitor our comprehension as we read.critical thinkingtrue or false: No one always acts purely objectively and rationally. It is of human nature to be subjective and irrational at times.truerely on reason rather than emotion require evidence, ignore arguments without any valid evidence, and follow evidence where it leads are concerned more with finding the best explanation than being right analyzing apparent confusion and asking questions prioritize truths and facts over emotional satisfaction and ego-feedingrationalityweigh the influences of motives and bias recognize our own assumptions, prejudices, biases, or points of view accept both our mistakes and achievements in as far as argumentation and reasoning are concernedself-awarenessrecognize emotional impulses, selfish motives, nefarious purposes, or other modes of self-deception recognize what we feel for what they are and not for what we want them to behonestyevaluate all reasonable inferences set aside biases when analyzing and evaluating information consider a variety of possible viewpoints or perspectives remain open to alternative interpretationsopen-mindednessprecise, meticulous, comprehensive, and exhaustive resist manipulation and irrational appeals avoid snap judgmentsdisciplinerecognize the relevance and/or merit of alternative assumptions and perspectives recognize the extent and weight of evidencejudgmentcritical thinking and logic---is the study of the criteria used in evaluating inferences or argumentslogicis a process of reasoning in which a new belief is formed on the basis of or in virtue of evidence or proof supposedly provided by other beliefs.inferenceis a collection of statements or propositions, some of which are intended to provide support or evidence in favor of one of the others.argumentis something that can either be true or false. We usually think of a statement as a declarative sentence, or part of a sentencestatement or propositionare those statements or propositions in it that are intended to provide the support or evidencepremises of an argumentis that statement or proposition for which the premises are intended to provide support (in short, it is the point the argument is trying to make).conclusion of an argumentattempts (successfully or unsuccessfully) to provide full proof of the conclusion. if the author intends it to be so strong that it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion to be false, or in other words, that the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises.deductiveif the author intends it only to be so strong that it is improbable that the premises could be true and the conclusion false, or in other words, that the conclusion is likely if the premises are trueinductiveonly attempts (successfully or unsuccessfully) to provide evidence for the likely truth of the conclusion, rather than outright proof.imductiveTo be a good argument, an argument must also have .... An argument with ... is called factually correcttrue premiseslogical pitfalls---an argument begs the question when it reasons in a circle or presupposes the truth of the very thing it's trying to prove.begging the questionExample: God exists, because it says that God exists in the Bible, and everything in the Bible is the true word of God.begging the questionThis fallacy is committed when something is concluded to be true simply because it hasn't been proven to be false, or is concluded to be false just because it hasn't been proven to be true. Reasoning in such a way is invalid. Something can be true even if no one has succeeded in showing it to be true.appeal to ignoranceExample: No one has even proven that there is life after death. Therefore, there is no life after death.appeal to ignoranceThis fallacy is committed when someone concludes that something must be true in virtue of what he or she wants to be true (or doesn't want to be false) instead of what the evidence suggests. Unfortunately, just because there are better consequences to something's being true rather than false does not provide evidence that it is true.wishful thinkingExample: The idea of life in a universe without God would be frightening and depressing, and very difficult to accept. Therefore, God must exist.wishful thinkingThis fallacy is committed when an argument or position is rejected not in virtue of its logical merits, but rather in virtue of the character, personality, background or motivation of the person giving the argument or holding the hominemExample: Former president Clinton has argued in favor of increasing restrictions on the sale of guns. But President Clinton is a lecherous, adulterous, untrustworthy, draft-dodging old pervert, so his views must surely be hominemis something that someone believes to be trueopinionis something that is truefactThose people whose opinion agrees with the facts are correct; those who have other opinions are incorrect....specific to generic , cuase and effect reasoning, using specific scenarios and making generalized conclusions from them. Bottom up approach ex: every time you eat peanuts, you cough, you are allergic to peanutsinductivegeneric to specific, act of making a generalized statement and backing it up with specific scenarios top down approach ex: If A = B and B = C, then A must equal C "All spiders have eight legs. A tarantula is a spider therefore, a tarantula has eight legs" ex: my state requires all lawyers pass the bar to practice, if i do not pass the bar, then i will not be able to represent someone legally.deductiveconclusion based on insufficient evidence or info. when conclusion is drawn from a "haste" or hurried study of insufficent evidence (inductive logic)hasty generalizationperson asserts that one occurrence leads to another, until a terrible conclusion is reached. each step or occurrence in the flawed reasoning gets increasingly implausible.slippery slope