What two groups were responsible for governing the colonies during the War for Independence?
Continental Congresses and state assemblies
What convinced the leaders of the need for a more permanent form of government?
Many Americans questioned whether Continental Congress had authority to wage war
What were the two main reasons some states objected to Congress disposing of western lands?
1. states didn't want to give up the land
2. land speculators would not be able to resell the lands for profit
What did the Northwest Ordinance of 1785 provide for western lands?
surveying and selling of the NW Territory
What primary weakness caused most of the failures of the Confederation Congress?
Congress lacked power to enforce the laws it made
What was to be the source of income to run the government under the Articles of Confederation? What was the result of the Congress's insufficient income?
The states were to voluntarily give $. There was not enough money to run the government and pay war debts.
What uprising of 1786-87 protested a heavy tax burden in Massachusetts? How did the uprising shape some leaders' views of the government?
Shay's Rebellion; They saw the need to strengthen the government.
What two meetings prepared the way for the Philadelphia Convention?
Mt. Vernon and the Annapolis Convention
When did the Philadelphia Convention begin? Where was it held? Who was the chairman? What was its original purpose?
May 25, 1787; Independence Hall; George Washington; to revise the Articles of Confederation to strengthen the national government
What were three benefits of keeping convention discussions secret?
freedom to speak and to change minds, avoid pressures from outside groups, gave the people more confidence in the Constitution
Name six notable men who were at the convention.
George Washington, James Madison, George Mason, Benjamin Franklin, James Wilson, and Alexander Hamilton
What was the difference between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan?
Virginia Plan: 2 houses, membership in both based on population
NJ Plan: 1 house, membership the same for every state
Who proposed the Great Compromise, and what was his proposition?
Roger Sherman; 2 houses, one with membership the same for every state (Senate) and one with membership based on population (the House of Representatives)
What was the Three-Fifths Compromise?
Population would be based on number of free persons plus 3/5 of others (slaves). Also promised slavery would not be interfered with for at least 23 years.
Why did the North and the South have different views on navigation and tariff laws?
The north had more industry than the south.
What is the only way to make changes to the Constitution? What keeps one branch of government from getting too much power?
an amendment; separation of powers, and checks and balances
What system divides the powers of government between the national government and the state governments?
Who were the Federalists? Who wrote The Federalist Papers, and what did the publication contain?
those in favor of adopting the Constitution; Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison; the most common objections to the Constitution and their arguments against the objections
Who were the Anti-Federalists, and why did they take their position?
those opposed to the Constitution; believed the state and local governments should be supreme