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microbiology exam 2, the prokaryotes: domain bacteria and archaea
Terms in this set (98)
the earlier edition of bergey's manual grouped bacteria by _______, staining reactions, presence of endospores, and other obvious features.
the latest edition of bergey's manual is based on a ________ system
a genetic component that is slow to change and performs that same functions in all organisms
in the 2nd edition of bergey's manual, the prokaryotes are grouped into two doimains, _________and __________
Gram negative and share a particular rRNA sequence. chemoheterotrophic; largest taxonomical groups of bacteria; five classes: alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-, and epsilon-
A stalk or bud protruding from a prokaryotic cell
Bacteria in a ______ relationship have ____metabolic requirements and have the smallest genomes
Alphaproteobacteria that is extremely small and has relatively few genes; one of the most abundant microorganisms on Earth.
Alphaproteobacteria observed to fix nitrogen while living in close association with certain tropical grasses
acetobacter and gluconobacter
alphaproteobacteria that are industrially important aerobic organisms that convert Ethanol into acetic acid (vinegar).
alphaproteobacteria; A genus of rod-shaped, gram-negative, pathogenic, intracellular parasitic microorganism. Transmitted to humans by bites of insect and ticks, divide by binary fission
Alphaproteobacteria; gram-negative, live obligately within white blood cells, rickettsia-like bacteria
caulobacter and hyphomicrobium
alphaproteobacteria that live in low nutrient, aquatic enviornments. They have stalks that increases in size more maximum absorption. They reproduce by budding, and the parent cells remains the same size throughout the entire process. They produce prominent prosthecae
Rhizobium and bradyhizobium
alphaproteobacteria. 2 important genera that infect roots of leguminous plants, lead to formation of nodules in roots (symbiotic relationship), result in N2 fixation for the plants , these bacteria are commonly known as rhizobia
alphaproteobacteria; plant pathogen causes disease called crown gall by inserting DNA into the plant in the form of plasmids
alphaprotebacteria; human pathogen; cat scratch disease
Alphaproteobacteria- small non motile coccobacilli- obligate parasites of mammals- causes brucellosis- ability to survive phagocytes
nitrobacter and nitrosomonas
One is beta the other is an alphaproteobacteria nitrifying bacteria; chemoautotrophs that make soil nitrogen more useable for plants.
important in Nitrogen cycle
alphaproteobacteria; most commong infections bacteria on planet, endosymbionts of insects and other animals (75% of insects carry it)
gram negative, use nutrients that diffuse away from areas of anaerobic decomposition (hydrogen, ammonia, methane) several pathogenic bacteria are found in this group
Include Most od the proteobacteria that are capable of growth at very low levels. Of nutrients. Some have unusual morphology, and include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants and several plant and human pathogens
(Beta-)Important in the sulfur cycle
converts elemental sulfur and sulfides into sulfate
(beta-) spiral shaped bacteria that have polar flagella; gram - and aerobic
(beta-) they were sheathed bacteria that are gram-, aerobic rods that for and reside within tube-like structures called sheaths; contributes to sewage bulking
(beta-) have single polar flagella or tuft, aerobic, gram -, can degrade more than 100 different organic molecules, can grow in disinfectants
(beta-) Whooping cough, aerobic, gram-, non-motive rods
(beta-) aerobic, gram-, cocci, inhabit mucous membrane in mammals. Pathogenic species cause gonorrhea and meningitis
As they grow, this bacteria form fluffy, slimy Masses that are essential to the proper operation of sewage treatment processes
gram -, class in Proteobacteria, largest subgroup, very diverse
(gamma) It is not photosynthetic. Motility is by gliding. Nutritionally, it uses hydrogen sulfide.
(gamma) small, Pleomorphic bacteria that grow on complex media enriched with blood or tissue extracts
(gamma) an order gram -, aerobic, rods or cocci
(gamma) genus. Aerobic rods. Mobile by polar flagella (tuft or single), can infect urinary tract, burns, wounds, and blood infections; synthesize a lot of enzymes; resistant to most antibiotics, can grow in some antiseptic; some can substitute N for O; food spoilage contributor
(gamma) order, facultative anaerobic gram-negative rods. many slightly curved, found in mostly aquatic habitats
(gamma) genus. slightly curved rods. pathogens cause cholera and gastroenteritis. transmitted to humans by raw or uncooked shellfish
(gamma) order. facultative anaerobic, gram negative rods. if motile they are peritrichously flagellated.
commonly called enterics. inhabit intestinat tracts of humans and other animals. active fermenters of glucose
(gamma)genus. inhabit human intestine, Its presence in water or food is an indication of fecal contamination, not usually pathogenic.
(gamma) genus. potentially pathogenic. inhabit intestinal tracts of many animals ( poultry and cattle),
Can be used to differentiate and identify bacteria
this scheme designates an organism by number and letter that corresponds to specific antigens on the organisms capsule, cell wall, and flagella, which are identified by the letter K, O, and H.
(gamma) genus. commonly found in soil or water. nitrogen fixation.
(gamma) genus. exhibit a swarming type of growth on agar.
(gamma) genus. .
The bacterium that the infected fleas carried. The fleas would infect the rats then infect the humans. The main bacterium that caused the Black Death.
Gram-negative rod; pleomorphic; nonmotile
Gram Negative. widley distributed to in humans, animals, water, sewage and soil
(gamma) the bacteria in this order are no motile, best known as human and animal pathogens
(gamma) genus. pathogen of domestic animals. transmitted to humans by dog and cat bites
(gamma) genus. pathogenic bacteria. inhabit the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, mouth, vagina, and intestinal tract. require blood
a curved g(-) bacterium that preys on g(-) bacteria by boring through the outer membrane and cell wall of the host bacterium and dividing in the periplasm. after cell division, progeny prey released through host cell lysis
proteobacteria that include some bacteria that are predators on other bacteria. Bacteria in this group are also important contributors of the sulfur cycle
(delta) order. sulfur reducing bacteria, obligate anaerobic bacteria that use oxidized forms of sulfur, release tons of H2S into atm. every year.
(delta) genus. found in anaerobic sediments and in the intestinal tracts of humans and animals. sulfur reducing.
Sulfur-reducing and sulfate-reducing bacteria
use organic compounds such as lactate, ethanol, or fatty acids as electron donors.
(delta) the fruiting and gliding bacteria. illustrate the most complex cycle of all bacteria, part of which is predatory upon other bacteria
(delta) genus. the vegetative cells move by gliding and leave behind a slime trail. gram -.
Most complex life cycle in all bacteria. They have a fruity body that will form spores or will form vegetative cells under chemical induction.
slender gram-negative rods that are helical or curved. motile by means of flagella and are microaerophilic
(epsilon) genus. microaerophilic curved rods with multiple flagella. H. pylori most common cause of peptic ulcers in humans and stomach cancer
phyla. Gram positive, low G+C content in DNA
include endospore forming bacteria, medically important bacteria, and industrial microbiology bacteria.
Phyla. gram +, high G +C content in DNA. many of the bacteria in this phyla are highly pleomorphic.
(firmicutes) genus. obligate anaerobes, rod-shaped, contain endospores.
bacteria that do not posses a cell wall (highly pleomorphic) and are found in the phylum firmicutes . can produce filaments that resemble fungi. originally considered to be viruses because of their small size and being able to pass through filters that retain bacteria.
(firmicutes) this order inclused several important genera of gram positive rods and cocci
(firmicutes) bacteria in this genus are typically rods that produce endospores. common in soil and only a few are pathogenic to humans. several of the species produce antibiotics
(firmicutes) this genus occur in grapelike clusters. pathogenicity takes many forms. grow well in conditions of high osmotic pressure and low moisture
(firmicutes) genus. lactic acid producing bacteria. aerotolerant. used in the production of yogurt and pickles.
(firmicutes) members of this genus are spherical, gram-+ bacteria that typically appear in chains. pathogenic
(firmicutes) genus. facultative aerobes. high resistant to most antibiotics. pathogenic
(actinobacteria) this genus grows only as extended, often branching filaments. club shaped. pleomorphic. morphology varies with age of the cell.
(actinobacteria) this genus grows only as extended, often branching filaments ; also called actinomycetes. most commonly isolated from soil . reproductive asexual spores are formed at the ends of aerial filaments; strict aerobes; produce geosmin
(actinobacteria) genus. pathogenic. aerobic, non-endosporeforming rod. filamentous growth, acid fast staining, drug resistance. mycolic acid layer
(actinobacteria) genus. bacteria have ability to form propionic acid; some of the species are important in fermentation of swiss cheese another causes acne.
what group of bacteria makes most of the commercially important antibiotics?
the gram negative bacteria that do not fit into proteobacteria. most of the photosynthetic bacteria are in here; gram negative
nonproteobacteria; oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. blue-green pigmentation. also capable of fixing nitrogen gram negative
cells in cyanobacteria that fix nitrogen from the atmosphere . N2 to NH4+ that can be used by the growing cell
nonproteobacteria; no peptidoglycan in cell wall. gram negative coccoid bacteria. pathogens. sexual diseases. gram negative
nonproteobacteria; anaerobic, inhabitant of human intestinal tract; gram-negative, are nonmotile, and do not form endospore
nonproteobacteria; long and slender, gram negative rods with pointed rather than blunt ends. anaerobes. spindle shaped.
which gram-negative group has a life cycle that includes different stages?
purple and green photosynthetic bacteria
anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria
green sulfur bacteria
genus chlorobium; chlorophyll pigments, use hydrogen sulfide; nonproteobacteria
green nonsulfur bacteria
'Chloroflexi" bacteriochlorophyls a and c,, anoxygenic, electron donors are organic compounds, no sulfur or nitrogen fixation, gliding; nonproteobacteria
purple sulfur bacteria
proteobacteria; photosynthetic gram negative bacteria; use H2S as an electron donor
purple nonsulfur bacteria
proteobacteria ; photosynthetic gram negative bacteria; use organic compounds for the photosynthetic reduction of CO2
granules of sulfur
purple sulfur and green sulfur produce________instead of O2
cyanobacteria as well as eukaryotic plants ad algae produce _______ from _______ as they carry out photosynthesis
(no oxygen produced) uses bacteriochlorophyll, hydrogen source is hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) and gives off elemental sulfur as product
nonproteobacteria; cyanobacteria, unicellular, nonfilamentous. groups of these cells, which divide by binary fission, are held together by the surrounding glycocalyx
nonproteobacteria; cyanobacteria; filamentous with heterocysts.
coiled morphology, resembling a metal spring. move with 2 or more axial filaments
a spirochete that causes syphilis. pathogenic
(Spirochetes) Question mark-shaped bacteria found in water contaminated with animal urine
used reduced sulfur compounds, deposit sulfur granules externally; contain chlorosomes
Domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan
halophilic archaea, lives where there's high salt concentrations; red-pigmented and use light to make ATP
acidophile and thermophile archaeabacteria. this grows in optimal pH about 2 and temp more than 70C
strict anaerobic archaeabacteria that produce methane as an end product by combining hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
member of archaea found growing in deep-ocean sediment at a temperature of 110°C. cells are disk-shaped with a network of tubules.
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