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We The People Unit 3 Vocab Mr. Peck Leadership


a change in or addition to a legal document

judicial review

the power of the courts to declare laws and actions of the local and state governments or the national government invalid if they are found to contradict the U.S. Constitution

delegated powers

according to the natural rights philosophy, people always retain their basic rights, but provisionally entrust or assign certain powers to their government for certain, limited purposes. the powers of government are therefore "delegated powers" in that they are granted by the people, and the people can take them back if the government fails to fulfill its purposes.

political party

an organization seeking to achieve political power by electing members to public office so that its political philosophy is reflecte din public policy

party system

a concept in political science that political parties control government


incitement to rebellion


support, often financial, given by a person or institution to a person, group, or institution in need


the choice of candidates of a political party for president and vice president


list of the policies and priorities of a political party; also known as a manifesto


opponents of slavery who wished to put an end to the institution

grandfather clause

provisions of laws passed in the south after the civil war stating that citizens could vote only if their grandfathers had been allowed to vote. the law made it impossible for african americans to vote because their grandfathers had been excluded from voting.

literacy test

a test to prove a person's ability to read and write; until 1964, such tests were used in various states to prevent minorities from voting

poll tax

a tax that voters in many states were required to pay in order to exercise their right to vote, these barriers were used until 1964 to prevent african americans from voting


in U.S. history, the act of states leaving the Union in 1861 following the election of President Abraham Lincoln; precipitated the Civil War

adversary system

a system of justice in which court trials are essentially contests between accuser and accused that take place before an impartial judge or jury

due process of law

a requirement stated in the fifth and fourteenth amendments that treatment by states and federal government in matter of life, liberty, or property of individuals be reasonable, fair, and follow known rules and procedures

fundamental rights

basic rights such as those to life, liberty, and property; considered more important than other non-basic rights


the process through which the U.S. Supreme Court has applied the due process clause of the fourteenth amendment to extend the reach of the Bill of Rights to include protection from interference by states

inquisitorial system

a trial system in which a judicial official or set of officials act as both prosecutor and and judge, questioning witnesses, examining evidence, and reaching a verdict

procedural due process

the principle that government must respect all, not some, of a person's legal rights. government must not subject individuals to severe, unfair, or arbitrary treatment

substantive due process

judicial interpretation of the due process clauses of the U.S. Constitution requiring the content of law to be fair and reasonable

equality of condition

equality in all aspects of life, such as wealth, standards of living, medical care, and working conditions

equality of opportunity

a right guaranteed by both federal and many states laws against discrimination in employment, education, housing, or credit rights due to a person's race, color, sex, and sometimes sexual orientation, religion, national origin, age, or handicap

intermediate scrutiny

in U.S. constitutional law, the middle level of scrutiny applied by courts deciding constitutional issues through judicial review

rational basis

in U.S. constitutional law, the lowest level of scrutiny applied by courts deciding constitutional issues through judicial review

separate but equal

the argument, upheld by the U.S. supreme court in Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 but later reversed, that racially segregated public facilities are constitutional if those facilities are of equal quality

strict scrutiny

under U.S. constitutional law, the second highest level of scrutiny used by courts reviewing federal law for constitutional legitimacy; super strict scrutiny is the highest level


giving the right to vote to a person or category of persons


a right or privilege; in the context of American politics, it means the right to vote

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