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the power of the courts to declare laws and actions of the local and state governments or the national government invalid if they are found to contradict the U.S. Constitution
according to the natural rights philosophy, people always retain their basic rights, but provisionally entrust or assign certain powers to their government for certain, limited purposes. the powers of government are therefore "delegated powers" in that they are granted by the people, and the people can take them back if the government fails to fulfill its purposes.
an organization seeking to achieve political power by electing members to public office so that its political philosophy is reflecte din public policy
support, often financial, given by a person or institution to a person, group, or institution in need
provisions of laws passed in the south after the civil war stating that citizens could vote only if their grandfathers had been allowed to vote. the law made it impossible for african americans to vote because their grandfathers had been excluded from voting.
a test to prove a person's ability to read and write; until 1964, such tests were used in various states to prevent minorities from voting
a tax that voters in many states were required to pay in order to exercise their right to vote, these barriers were used until 1964 to prevent african americans from voting
in U.S. history, the act of states leaving the Union in 1861 following the election of President Abraham Lincoln; precipitated the Civil War
a system of justice in which court trials are essentially contests between accuser and accused that take place before an impartial judge or jury
due process of law
a requirement stated in the fifth and fourteenth amendments that treatment by states and federal government in matter of life, liberty, or property of individuals be reasonable, fair, and follow known rules and procedures
basic rights such as those to life, liberty, and property; considered more important than other non-basic rights
the process through which the U.S. Supreme Court has applied the due process clause of the fourteenth amendment to extend the reach of the Bill of Rights to include protection from interference by states
a trial system in which a judicial official or set of officials act as both prosecutor and and judge, questioning witnesses, examining evidence, and reaching a verdict
procedural due process
the principle that government must respect all, not some, of a person's legal rights. government must not subject individuals to severe, unfair, or arbitrary treatment
substantive due process
judicial interpretation of the due process clauses of the U.S. Constitution requiring the content of law to be fair and reasonable
equality of condition
equality in all aspects of life, such as wealth, standards of living, medical care, and working conditions
equality of opportunity
a right guaranteed by both federal and many states laws against discrimination in employment, education, housing, or credit rights due to a person's race, color, sex, and sometimes sexual orientation, religion, national origin, age, or handicap
in U.S. constitutional law, the middle level of scrutiny applied by courts deciding constitutional issues through judicial review
in U.S. constitutional law, the lowest level of scrutiny applied by courts deciding constitutional issues through judicial review
separate but equal
the argument, upheld by the U.S. supreme court in Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 but later reversed, that racially segregated public facilities are constitutional if those facilities are of equal quality
under U.S. constitutional law, the second highest level of scrutiny used by courts reviewing federal law for constitutional legitimacy; super strict scrutiny is the highest level
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