Terms in this set (163)
Separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Plessy v Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
an address on the topic of race relations given by Booker T. Washington on September 18, 1895. Presented before a predominantly white audience at the Cotton States in Atlanta, Georgia, the speech has been recognized as one of the most important and influential speeches in American history.
African American progressive who rejected the previous ideology of Booker T. Washington (who said that self-improvement/education comes first, and then whites will learn to accept blacks on their own); this man argued that blacks need political rights in order to make any economic gains and he created the NAACP to make changes
Upper portion of black populaion that lead all blacks to a prosperous future- elite (dubois- souls of black folk)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Ida B. Wells-Barnett
Born a Slave, often wrote in a different name because she would be attacked violently she was an active crusader in anti lynching and women's rights (the right to vote) wrote essays on African American status
(AJohn) , Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people. They are anti-black and anti-Semitic.
Wilmington Race Riots 1898
illegal seizure of power from an elected government by white supremacists, who used, among their many weapons, a Gatling gun mounted on a wagon and photographed themselves in their activities. Governor Daniel Lindsay Russell and President William McKinley, who were well-informed of these events, did nothing in response. As a result, Jim Crow Laws were made in NC
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
Harlem Renaissance (famous writers)
faith centered on willingness to embrace black culture, history, and personality as something "beautiful", making art but making political statement, too, attempting to discover the African-American experience sources of something that could be both authentic and vital, a basis for the emergence of what came to be called the "New Negro" - fusion of art and politics
First Great Migration
From 1916-1930. Great Depression and WWI; urban areas were transforming, more jobs available since men away in the army; allowed African Americans to move northwards
African American track star in the 1936 Berlin Olympics
An African American boxer who became a national hero when he knocked out German boxer Mac Schmeling
332 Fighter Group famous for shooting down over 200 enemy planes. African American pilots who trained at the Tuskegee flying school., all black unit of fighter pilots. trained in Tuskegee Alabama. won many awards for bravery and never lost a single pilot
A famous African American concert singer who had her first performance in 1935, dazzling the audience and launching herself into fame. The next year she performed at the White House by presidential invitation, and performed on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial when the Daughters of the American Revolution refused to let her rent Constitution Hall (Eleanor Roosevelt and several others resigned after this decision).
Double V Campaign
The World War II-era effort of black Americans to gain "a Victory over racism at home as well as Victory abroad."1
A Phillip Randolph
He was the black leader of The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. He demanded equal opportunities in war jobs and armed forces during WWII. He helped encourage the end of segregation in the military, although that happened after the war.
FDR-Fair Employment Act
Executive Order 8802, FDR 1941, prohibit racial discrimination in the national defense industry, A Phillip Randolph
Desegregation of Armed Services (Korean War under Truman)
1948 In July, Truman issued an executive order establishing a policy of racial equality in the Armed Forces "be put into effect as rapidly as possible." He also created a committee to ensure its implementation.
2nd Great Migration
1940-1970. 1.5 million people move from the South to the North and West. This dramatically changed the geography of the African-American population and furthered the move toward urbanization. By 1970, 1 in 7 African-Americans had moved, about 5 million.
an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality
Brown v BOE of Topeka, KS
Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson: ended legal segregation, said school regulation is unconstitutional
Election of 1948
Dewey and Truman ran against each other, Dewey had an unwillingness to fight and lost against Truman, whom many people thought would lose because of his integration policies
Was a shortlived segregationist, socially conservative political party in the United States. It originated as a breakaway faction of the Democratic Party in 1948, determined to protect what they portrayed as the Southern way of life beset by an oppressive federal government
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Little Rock 9
1st group of black students who were able to attend an all white school because President Eisenhower used the military to enforce the Brown v. Board of Education decision
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
Greensboro Sit in
black students politely order food from restaurant, not served, sat in place for days & days, gathering supporters.
Non-violent protest training
A form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences.
1961 event organized by CORE and SNCC in which an interracial group of civil rights activists tested southern states' compliance to the Supreme Court ban of segregation on interstate buses
March on Washington
In August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill. The high point came when MLK Jr., gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to more than 200,000 marchers in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
Chief of the police in Birmingham. He attacked protesters viciously with dogs, fire hoses, and electric cattle prods. He said that the streets would flood with blood before integration.
6000 children marched in the place of protestors who had been thrown in jail. Authorities broke up the march with attack dogs, clubs, and high powered fire horses. The police Commissioner Eugene
16th St. Baptist Church
black church bombed by whites - killed 4 young girls inside and motivated people to pass civil rights act
Letter from Birmingham
A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn't speak out against racism.
NAACP leader that was shot and killed
He was a civil rights advocate who spurred a riot at the University of Mississippi. The riot was caused by angry whites who did not want Meredith to register at the university. The result was forced government action, showing that segregation was no longer government policy.
(Gov. of AL)
Racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Civil Rights Act 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Voting Rights Act 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap. The Voting Rights act made it easier for african americans to vote. 67
March from Selma to Montgomery
A march that was attempted many times to protest voting rights, with many peaceful demonstrators injured and killed.
He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers. He helped found the CIO and was responsible for the Fair Labor Standards Act.
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
Nation of Islam
A religious group, popularly known as the Black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion.
a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
African-American political activist, founder, along with Huey Newton, and national chairman of the Black Panther Party. Seale was one of a generation of young African-American radicals who broke away from the traditionally nonviolent Civil Rights Movement to preach a doctrine of militant black empowerment
An American political and urban activist who founded the Black Panther Party for Self Defense. The Black Panther Party worked for the right of self-defense for African-Americans in the United States.
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
Bakke v California
This case questioned the quota practices of the University of California medical school at Davis. Bakke, a white student denied admission to the school, sued the state, claiming reverse discrimination, since minorities with lesser qualifications were admitted to the medical school. The court ruled in Bakke's favor, declaring quotas unconstitutional although allowing race as one criterion for admission to a public institution.
allies during WWII; Soviet Union - Stalin, United Kingdom - Churchill, United States - Roosevelt
Teheran Conference (1943)
December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.
Bretton Woods Conference (1944)
1944, (FDR) , The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of Europe.
A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
COMECON-v-European Economic Community
Both organizations administered economic integration; however, their economic structure, size, balance, and influence differed.
National Security Act (1947)
Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
Yalta Conference (1945)
meeting of Roosevelt, Stalin, and Winston Churchill to discuss postwar plans and Soviet entry into the war against Japan near the end of World War II; disagreements over the future of Poland surfaced. During the Red Scare of the 1950s, some Americans considered the meeting to have been a sellout to the Soviets.
Potsdam Conference (1945)
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdan, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
Atomic Energy Commission
To oversee the control and development of nuclear weapons. The "Barouch Plan" set up the International Atomic Development whose goal was for use of peaceful potentials for atomic energy and to provide nations with security against surprise attacks.
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.
an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers.
(HT) , 1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
Berlin Blockade/ Airlift
stalin set up a blockade (to cut off west germany from east germany) so the americans sent huge planes every minute containing food clothing water and ect
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.
Soviet Union's response to the Marshall Plan. Gave money to Eastern European communist nations in order to rebuild politically and economically after World War II
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
(Postwar Europe) Tito helps win civil war.. HIS communists had the control, not Stalin
1893-1976. Chinese military and political leader who led the Communist Party of China to victory against the Kuomintang in the Chinese Civil War. Leader of the People's Republic of China from establishment in 1949 till death in 1976. Heralded as an influential leader who transformed China into world power. Programs led to large unnecessary loss of life and damage to the culture, society, economy, and foreign relations.
National Securtiy Council memo #68 US "strive for victory" in cold war, pressed for offensive and a gross increase ($37 bil) in defense spending, determined US foreign policy for the next 20-30 yrs
A series of court proceedings held in Nuremberg, Germany, after World War II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity.
Serviceman's Readjustment Act (GI Bill) 1944
The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (P.L. 78-346, 58 Stat. 284m), known informally as the G.I. Bill, was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s). Benefits included low-cost mortgages, loans to start a business or farm, cash payments of tuition and living expenses to attend college, high school or vocational education, as well as one year of unemployment compensation. It was available to every veteran who had been on active duty during the war years for at least ninety days and had not been dishonorably discharged. Combat was not required. By the end of the program in 1956, roughly 2.2 million veterans had used the G.I. Bill education benefits in order to attend colleges or universities. An additional 6.6 million used these benefits for some kind of training program.
An economic extension of the New Deal proposed by Harry Truman that called for higher minimum wage, housing and full employment. It led only to the Housing Act of 1949 and the Social Security Act of 1950 due to opposition in congress.
The buck stops here!
President Truman's Slogan
Taft-Hartley Act (1947) "right to work laws"
Also called the Labor Management Relations Act. This act was Congress' response to the abuse of power. Outlawed closed shops; prohibited unions' unfair labor practices, and forced unions to bargain in good faith.
Gov Strom Thurmond
Ran for the Presidency of the United States in 1948 as the segregationist States Rights Democratic Party (Dixiecrat) candidate,
(1950-3) A conflict between UN forces (primarily US and S Korea) against North Korea, and later China; Gen. Douglas Macarthur led UN forces and was later replaced by Gen. Ridgeway; Resulted in Korea remaining divided at the 38th parallel.
Inchon Landing (1950)
General MacArthur decided to land here behind enemy lines instead of in the Southern Pusan perimeter. He succeeded and within two weeks the North Koreans had scrambled back behind the sanctuary of the thirty eighth parallel. President Truman ordered northward crossings by MacArthur provided that there were no interventions in forces by the Chinese or Soviets.
After North Korean forces were forced back behind this Truman gave MacArthur permission to pursue communists into their own territory. He was moving beyond the policy of containment and envisioning a rollback of communist power. It separated north and south Korea.
General Douglas MacArthur
American General; he commanded U.S. troops in the South Pacific during World War II; later he commanded UN forces in the Korean War. One of America's greatest WWII generals; told the Filipino people, "I shall return"; became a five-star general of the U.S. Army and later took command of all American forces in the Pacific; Acted as military governor of Japan after its defeat.
Old soldiers never die; they just fade, fade, fade away!
speech made by MacArthur after he retired from the Army
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,
A U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. He was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 by Whittaker Chambers and prosecuted by Richard Nixon; convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950
A member of the Communists of USA group, accused many people of being Communist, including Alger Hiss (they later get into lawsuits with each other)- did it so that he'd be off the hook
Senator Joseph McCarthy
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists
Julius & Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
McCarran Internal Security Act
1950 - Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism. Was a response to the onset of the Korean war.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
The Trials in which Senator McCarthey accused the U.S. Army of harboring possible communists.These trials were one of the first televised trials in America, and helped show America Senator McCarthey's irresponsibility and meanness.
Senator Robert Taft
Commonly known as "Mr. Republican," he led the Republican party to reduce the size and the power of the federal government, to decrease taxes, to block Truman's liberal goals.
Central Intelligence Agency; KGB
An agency created after World War II to coordinate American intelligence activities abroad. It became involved in intrigue, conspiracy, and meddling as well.
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
U-2 incident; Francis Gary Powers
spy plane shot down over soviet union and its pilot was captured. we denied it and said it was weather plane but soviets showed us our captain and it was akward
A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests
John Foster Dulles
American politican principally known for serving as Eisenhower's Secretary of State; drafted the "policy of boldness" designed to confront Soviet aagression with the threat of "massive retaliation" via thermonuclear weapons
Eisenhower proposed and obtained a joint resolution from Congress authorizing the use of U.S. military forces to intervene in any country that appeared likely to fall to communism. Used in the Middle East.
Hungarian Revolt 1956
Students and workers in Budapest began rioting for the return of the reformist premier Nagy. At first Khrushchev seemed willing to compromise, then he crushed the revolution. The west ignored it because the Suez Crisis was going on
Eisenhower's term for the close ties between the defense industry and the Pentagon that might influence government policy.
Eisenhower's farewell address
He warned the kids about the effects of heavy defense spending
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles, long-range nuclear missiles capable of being fired at targets on the other side of the globe. The reason behind the Cuban Missile Crisis -- Russia was threatening the U.S. by building launch sites for ICBM's in Cuba.
National Defense Education Act 1958
The act that was passed in response to Sputnik; it provided an opportunity and stimulus for college education for many Americans. It allocated funds for upgrading funds in the sciences, foreign language, guidance services, and teaching innovation.
took over after Stalin, wasn't an intellectual, not strong guy, he came from peasants, brilliant man that survived the ruthlessness of Stalin; He understood that he needed the support of the people; He took money from the industry and military and put it in consumer goods
Occurred when the countries controlling the zones in western Germany decided to unite them; Stalin had other plans.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Cuban Missile Crisis
(1961) Crises that developed as a result of Cuban dictator Fidel Castro's decision to allow the Soviet Union to base nuclear missiles in Cuba. Upon discovery, the United States confronted the Soviet Union and demanded the missiles be removed. For nearly two weeks, nuclear war was imminent. Fortunately, diplomacy succeeded and crisis was averted.
What kept the United States from experiencing another depression after the war? What economic challenges did the nation face? (inflation, etc.)
John F. Kennedy ordered a blockade around Cuba and the Soviet Union decided to withdraw its missiles from Cuba if the United States pulled its missiles out of Turkey.
Identify the provisions of the GI Bill of Rights. How did it help World War II veterans make the transition to civilian life?
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term shall be elected to the office of the President more than once.
How did reconversion affect the many women and minorities who had taken war-related jobs?
How did post-war labor strikes impact American sentiment regarding the power of organized labor? How did Truman respond to the strikes?
Why was the National Security Council created? What role did it play in the development of national policy?
The National Road was built so people could transport goods and help settlers travel to the new state.
Why did tensions emerge between the Soviet Union and her former allies before World War II? What were Stalin's aims after the war?
How did the Yalta Conference deal with the Polish and German questions?
The Yalta Conference foreshadowed later events like the Cold War with its decision to divide up land and power.
Explain the basic structure of the UN, and contrast its reception in the US with that of the League of Nations.
Contrast the attitudes of Franklin Roosevelt and Harry Truman toward Stalin and the Russians. How did this difference play out at the Potsdam Conference?
Why did the US continue to support Chiang Kai-shek even as his control of mainland China slipped away?
What was the purpose of the I.M.F.? the World Bank?
What was the policy of "containment"? What were President Truman's goals in establishing this foreign policy?
Creation of "white only" and "black only" jobs, racial classification of all Africans, curfews, no minimum wage of unemployment benefits, 2+ gathering banned, pass books (containing fingerprints, chart of travel, photo ID, current employment status)
Identify the main objectives of the Truman Doctrine.
The main objects on the Fraternity's Coat Of Arms are: a coin bag, Phoenician Galley, a ten-pointed star, chain of four links, pair of balances and the motto.
In what ways was the Marshall Plan the economic component of containment? How well did it work?
The Nortwhest Ordinance of 1787 was successful because it was a plan for allowing a large piece of land to become states that were the equals of the original 13 states.
Why did the US initiate the Berlin Airlift in 1948? What were the effects of this move?
we were isolationists and we wanted Germany to stop doing bad things (depression, ww1, NYE)
List the original members of N.A.T.O. What was the purpose of this alliance?
original: Britain, France, Belgium, Holland, & Portugal
Why was NSC-68 a key document in the early Cold War era?
What is the "post-revisionist" view of the origins and nature of the cold War?
What were the Truman administration's domestic successes and failures after the election of 1948?
US sending aid to countries under threat of communism, sometimes US has to take sole responsibility for stopping the spread of communism
List the major components of Truman's "Fair Deal." What were his proposals for domestic reform that were rejected by a more conservative Congress?
What were the provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947? How did it address the issue of labor unions in the post WWII period?
What did President Truman mean by the sign on his desk which said: The buck stops here.
a foreign policy called containment. It was apolicy directed at blocking Soviet influence and stopping the expansion of communism.helped resist the Soviets advance
Identify the major candidates, issues, and outcome of the 1948 presidential election. Why is it so historic?
What technology did the Russians get in 1949? How did that change the nature of the cold War?
(1950-3) A conflict between UN forces (primarily US and S Korea) against North Korea, and later China; Gen. Douglas Macarthur led UN forces and was later replaced by Gen. Ridgeway; Resulted in Korea remaining divided at the 38th parallel.
Why did the US go to war in Korea in 1950? What was the role of the UN in this conflict?
Tensions in Cuba grew. US trade with Cuba worth $100 million and needed to be protected. Cubans wanted freedom and yellow journalism created American sympathy. Battleship Maine lays anchor in Havana and an explosion on the ship kills many. Spain is blamed and McKinley gives in to war fever.
What was General MacArthur's plan in 1951 to end the stalemate in Korea? Why did president Truman object to it so strongly?
-instead of raiding the islands Japanese already had strongholds in, he advised to island hop past these and take over islands closer to Japa
Why did President Truman fire General MacArthur? What was the initial reaction of most Americans to this decision?
Because he wanted to bomb China and spoke out against President Truman and UN. Summed up as: Insubordination.
What were the terms of the peace treaty that ended the Korean War?
Vietnam would be temporarily divided at the 17th parallel between a communist north and a democratic south. In 1956, national elections would be held which would reunify the country
What was the significance of the Korean War in terms of American military effectiveness, its prediction of future US involvement in Asia, and its impact on the American commitment to fighting the Cold War?
The Antiterrorism and Efective Death Penalty Act was intended to deter terrorism, provide justice for victims, provide for an effective death penalty. Provided a 1 year window to seek Habeas Corpus. Generaly limited to one try.
Why was HUAC created? What role did it play in the Second "Red Scare"?
Who were the "Hollywood 10"? Why was Hollywood a target of anti-communist investigations by Congress in the 1950s?
What role did Ronald Reagan play in those Hollywood investigations?
What is "red-baiting?" How was it used by the Republican Party in the 1950s?
What personalities and policies led to the Republican victory in the presidential election of 1952?
What factors combined to create the anti-communist paranoia that led to the national mood that allowed the rise to prominence of Senator Joseph McCarthy?
An efficient transportation network connected small Midwestern farms to big eastern cities (like New York City, Philadelphia, and Boston) and their big markets. This created the first true "national market" in American history. Midwestern farms also capitalized on new mechanized farm machinery.
How did McCarthy exploit the existing mood of hysteria? What sorts of tactics did he use in his attacks on alleged subversion?
Though anti-communist sentiment did not disappear, what led to the demise of Senator Joseph McCarthy?
How was this 1950s "Red Scare" era similar to the one at the end of and immediately following WWI? How was it different?
How did Ike change economic policies? In what ways did he expand New Deal programs?
What was John Foster Dulles' foreign policy philosophy? What were his ideas on deterrence?
Brinkmanship, massive retaliation, roll-back communism
Why did Eisenhower have a landslide victory in 1956?
Eisenhower knew that the assault on Berlin would be very bloody and he desired to save american lives
Explain the Suez Crisis in light of the Cold War. How was it related to the Eisenhower Doctrine?
Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal, owned by France and Britain. Frnace and Britain invaded, leading to worldwide condemnation. The US was angry because we weren't consulted, and because we were actively pursuing better relations with the Arabs. The USSR called the attack "capitalism imperialism" and threatened a "rocket attack." The French and British withdrew.
What happened to the Hungarian Revolt? How did the US respond? Why?
Spanish plan to enslave the Native Americans failed
Explain the crisis over Berlin in 1959-61 and the Berlin Wall.
Explain the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Cuba's alliance with the Soviets worried many Americans. Eisenhower authorized the CIA to secretly train and arm Cuban exiles, known as la Brigada to invade their island. It was attempted, but eventually everyone got captured or killed, and it makes Kennedy look bad.
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