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Terms in this set (138)
An adjective that describes non living materials in the environment, such as sunlight, rain, gasses in the air, rocks, and chemicals in the soil
a basic unit of matter that cannot be broken down further without losing its unique properties.
Adjective that describes living organisms or their remains.
A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
All areas on, within, and around the planet Earth that are capable of supporting life.
Smallest fundamental unit of structure and function in life.
All of the populations interacting with each other within a specified area.
All the living(biotic) things in a particular area together with the abiotic (nonliving) materials and conditions in that area; a biological community and its physical environment.
A large and complex molecule formed by combining smaller subunits producing larger unit consisting of many atoms with new properties.
two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond.
A collection of tissues grouped together based on a common general function.
An integrated collection of organs in the body that work together to perform a vital function.
A specialized structure within a cell formed when a specific set of molecules bond, creating a subunit that has a specific function.
An individual living entity that survives and reproduces as a unit.
All the individuals of the same species that occupy the same area and are likely to breed with one another.
A group of similar cells carrying out the same detailed function within an organism.
Attractions between atoms that hold atoms and molecules together: covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonds.
Represent the sharing of the electrons(negatively charged subatomic particles between atoms.)
The tendancy of an atom to hold shared electrons more close to its nucleus. Oxygen and nitrogen are most important elements.
And interaction between a partially positive hydrogen atom and partially negative atom with an unshared pair of electrons.
An attractive force generated by the interactions between ions of opposite charges. Attraction between a negative and positive ion.
Negatively charged subatomic particle that occupies shells surrounding the nucleus and has a mass that is so small it is considered to be zero.
Subatomic particle with a neutral charge that is contained in the nucleus and has a mass of approximately 1 atomic mass unit.
A positively charged subatomic particle that is contained in the nucleus and has a mass of approximately 1 atomic mass unit.
The attraction of water molecules to molecules other than water.
A property of matter in which particles tend to stick together.
Water loving; can form hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds with water.
Water fearing; molecules to not interact with water and are characterized by a complete lack of electromagnetic atoms.
The capacity of a liquids surface to resist being ruptured when placed under tension or stress.
Component of a solution that is present in the smallest quantity and which dissolved in a solvent.
Homogenous mixtures of solvent and solute.
Component of a solution that is present in the greatest quantity and in which something else is dissolved.
building blocks of proteins
Type of lipid composed of glycerol and saturated fatty acids; typically solid at room temperature
Small organic molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules to form polymer.
Molecules containing a carton atom that is covalently bonded to a hydrogen atom.
A carbohydrate that consists of long chains of monosaccharides bonded together. Often used for energy storage and structural support by organisms.
Type of lipid composed of common carbon ring structure
Relatively large molecules made by living organisms from smaller molecules binding blocks.
Simple carb with chemical formula C6H1206
Simple molecules not found in living things; do not contain both carbon and hydrogen together.
Simple sugar containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio
A molecule consisting of glycerol bonded to a phosphate group and two fatty acids.
Organic macromolecule consisting of folded chains of amino acids
Nonpolar lipids that form protective layers on plants and animals
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
Organic macromolecules that are largely nonpolar and as a result are hydrophobic. Functions in the cell to store energy for long-term use
Type of lipid
Large molecules consisting of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds.
The final 3-dimensional shape of proteins that results from interactions between amino acids in the protein.
Specific region in the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell where genetic material is stored
Organic macromolecules, built from nucleotides, that carry out two main functions in the cell; storage of genetic information and synthesis of proteins.
Nucleic acid composed of nucleotides in a single strand whose primary function is protein synthesis.
Type of cell lacking a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles. Found only in the domains of bacteria and archaea.
Organisms with complex cells that have distinctive traits such as a nucleus, membrane bound organelles. a cytoskeleton, and the presence of introns in genes.
structure surrounding and protecting the cell; certain substances can cross and others can not.
Substance that fills the inside contents of a cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. Contains a semi-fluid medium, composed of mainly water, and organelles.
Cell structure formed by a series of protein filaments
Cellular structure consisting of RNA and protein organized into two subunits and functioning as the site of protein synthesis. Found in cytoplasm.
Specialized structures within a cell, formed when a specific set of molecules bond, creating a subunit that has a specific function
The center of an atom
A specific region in the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell where genetic material is stored
Cell with Membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane enclosed structures. All organisms besides bacteria and archaea are composed of this.
Found in plant cells; protective and reinforcing structure
Short hair like appendage on the cell surface. Functions to move the cell from one place to another or move fluids and particles across the cell surface.
The double-layered membrane surrounding the nucleus of a cell.
Powerhouse of eukaryotic cell; primary function is to perform cellular respiration; converts chemical energy into ATP
In Eukaryotic cells where photosynthesis occurs
In Eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of membrane sacs that modify, store, and ship products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
small membrane sacs that specialize in moving products into, out of, and within a cell
Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates. Mainly water.
A double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organelle membranes.
Certain molecules or ions to pass through it by means of active or passive transport.
Movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins and requiring input of energy.
The movement of materials into the cytoplasm of a cell via vesicles or vacuoles.
The movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell via membranous vesicles or vacuoles.
The passage diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane down its concentration gradient, aided by specific transport proteins
The tendency of organisms and cells to maintain stable internal conditions.
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Spontaneous movement of particles of any kind down a concentration gradient; that is movement of particles from where they are move concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
Small organic molecule with three phosphate groups attached that acts as the direct source of energy for almost all cellular activities
A chemical reaction in which a phosphate group is added to another molecule
Chemical potential energy
The energy stored in the bonds of molecules; larger molecules with more bonds have more chemical potential energy
First stage of photosynthesis where light energy is used by the chlorophyll to generate chemical energy in the form of ATP
An electron carrier involved in photosynthesis. which provides the high-energy electrons for the reduction of carbon dioxide to sugar in the Calvin cycle.
A two carbon molecule that is an intermediate product between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration.
A process that requires oxygen
A process that occurs without oxygen
Use of oxygen to release energy from nutrients
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
2nd stage of aerobic cellular respiration that occurs when acetyl CoA combines with a four-carbon molecule and goes through a cycle of reactions; producing ATP, NADH, FADH2, and CO2.
electron transport chain
Last stage of aerobic cellular respiration where the NADH and FADH2 made in other steps deposit their electrons. As electrons move down the chain, energy is released and used to move protons across to the mitochondrial membrane to form ATP. At the end, oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor to form water. Requires oxygen.
One of the electron carrier molecules produced in the Krebs cycle of aerobic cellular respiration.
Breaks down organic molecules and stored energy as ATP
The carbon molecule that is the end product of glycolysis.
A series of phases in the life of the cell through which it grows and divides
The activity in the cell during stages G1, S, and G2. Where cells are preparing to divide.
Stages of development:: G1, Synthesis(S), G2, mitosis(M), and cytokinesis.
Where dna undergoes replication in preparation for cell division
Growth phase of interphase where the DNA and the cell is checked to ensure it's ready to undergo cell division.
Type of cellular division in which a single diploid, somatic cell is divided into two genetically identical daughter cells.
Division of the cytoplasm of a cell at the end of mitosis to form two separate daughter cells. Produces the cell membrane or cell wall to divide the cell into two cells.
Tightly coiled form of the DNS-protein complex. Threadlike structures located inside cells.
chromosome pairs (one from each parent) that are similar in length, gene position, and centromere location.
Two haploid cells can combine to form a diploid cell. Production of a diploid nucleus from haploid nuclei.
Chromosomes condense; phase 1
Chromosomes are moved to the center of the cell; phase 2
Sister chromatids are separated and move to opposite sides of the cell; phase 3
New nuclear membranes are formed around clusters of chromosomes in each side of the cell; phase 4
Meiosis 1: Prophase 1 (1st stage)
The chromosomes condense and the nuclear membrane breaks down; the homologous chromosomes pair up and crossing over occurs.
Meiosis 1: Metaphase 1 (2nd stage)
Homologous pairs of chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell and are attached to the fully formed meiotic spindle.
Meiosis 1: anaphase 1 (third stage)
The homologous chromosomes pairs separate and move toward the opposite poles of the cell
Meiosis 1: telophase 1 (final stage)
The homologous chromosome pairs reach the poles of the cell, nuclear envelopes form around them, and cytokinesis produces two separate cells.
Meiosis 2: Prophase 2
Chromosomes form while the nuclear membranes disintegrate in the 2 cells
Meiosis 2: Metaphase 2
Each chromosome lines up along the equator
Meiosis 2: Anaphase 2
Sister chromatids separated while the entire cell elongates. Occurs in two different cells.
Meiosis 2: Telophase 2
Chromosomes de-condense while new nuclear membranes will form around the chromosomes each cell goes through cytokinesis.
Physical or physiological characteristics present; the manifestation of the genes in an organism. Observable trait.
The genetic information that makes the observable trait of the organism. The allele present in an organism.
Contains the largest amount of genetic information
Variations for genes
Cells that have the same allele
Cells with different alleles
Cross between two organisms, each of which is heterozygous for the trait
Cross between two organisms that are each heterozygous for two distinct genes
A form of intermediate inheritance where one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over the other allele in the heterozygous. This results in a third phenotype where the expressed physical trait is a combo of the phenotype of both alleles.
Occurs when one phenotype is controlled by two or more genes. Examples are height, skin color, eye color, and weight.
Chromosomes that are not sex determining. Will demonstrate pattern of inheritance that is not affected by the sex of the individual.
X and Y chromosomes. Males have XY and females XX
Mendelian: autosomal dominant ; premature aging
Mendelian: autosomal recessive; abnormal glandular secretions
Mendelian: autosomal recessive; neurodegenerative disorder affecting nerve cells of the brain and central nervous system
Sex-linked; inadequate blood clotting
Red-green color blindness
Sex-linked; inability to distinguish red from green
Lethal Dominant gene
Passed to the next generation because it does not affect the individual until after reproductive age
Failure of sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes to separate during anaphase of either mitosis or meiosis
Encodes the protein
Brings amino acids to the ribosome
Component of the ribosome
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Meiosis and Mitosis