flexion and extension, adduction and abduction, medial and lateral rotation, plantar and dorsiflexion, inversion and eversion, supination and pronation, elevation and depression, protraction and retraction, circumduction
characteristics of a synovial joint
1. freely movable 2. formed by 2 articulating bones 3. articulating surfaces are covered in hyaline cartilage (no blood supply) 4. united by fibrous/joint capsule that's reinforced by ligaments 5. capsule lined with synovial membrane that covers all structures apart from the articulating surfaces 6. synovial membrane is a form of lymph that functions to reabsorb fluid that helps to remove substances from the joint cavity and lubricates cartilagenous surfaces within the joint 7. synovial fluid supplies articular cartilage with nutrients obtained from blood vessels of the synovial membrane 8. may contain bursae (contain synovial fluid and act as cushions to aid movement of tendons over bony parts) 9. may contain menisci 10. relies on movement for health, lack of movement may cause articulating surfaces to dry out making movement difficult 11. abnormal movment eg. 1 side moving more than the other, could cause arthritis
types of synovial joints and eg.
ball and socket eg. hip, condyloid/ellipsoid eg. wrist, gliding eg. tarsals, hinge eg. elbow, saddle eg. 1st carpo-metacarpal jt, pivot eg, between head of radius and radial notch of ulna or c1/c2