Regular patterns of social interaction and persistent social relationships.
Is a socially recognized position in a social system. May be defined by occupation, age, gender, race, education.
Is a status in which individuals are assigned without regard for their actions, desires, or abilities. EX: Male, female, old, daughter, white.
A status in which individuals acquire through their own actions. EX: College student, athlete, Married person
Is a set of all statuses occupied by a person at one time.
A position so important it dominates all other statuses in that persons status set
Is the status that defines or structures the role set for a particular situation
Any status formally defined as irrelevant to a situation and which should have no bearing on interaction.
is a set of expectations for anyone occupying a particular social status. Roles are attached to social statuses not to individuals. A mother is expected to care for her child regardless of who she is as an individual
The set of all roles associated with a particular social status
Actions by an individual occupying a social status based on their role.
Modifications or changes as a result of individual action by people occupying those roles.
Difficulties meeting the expectations of a single role. EX: A father may not be able to support his family financially
When different roles have incompatible expectations. EX:Parent and Teacher
Avoid statuses provoking incompatible roles for the same role partner. EX: Teachers avoid relationships with students
A separation of one's self from the role one must play. It is a strategy to separate identity from action.
Generalizations about a certain group of people asserting they have a particular set of characteristics and not taking into account their individual differences. Usually incorrect, inflexible, and unfair
an assumption that once having been made leads to the predicted event occurring.
Emphasizes the meaning of actions and the use of symbols in communication.
views interaction as analogous to actors in play
Social Exchange theory
emphasizes the valued outcomes of the interaction
The social construction of reality
The process by which people define reality, influenced by interactions with others as well as their own life experiences and assumptions
Defining the situation
Refers to the social process through which the statuses and roles appropriate to a situation are identified.
A social structure determined by the interactions through which people propose, discuss, and often settle on a shared definition of the situation providing meaning for actions
Strategies people use to convey a favorable impression or favorable self image to other people
Others present whom they would like to impress. Ex: An audience, an audience for a physician may be the patient
Audience is not present. Can be relaxed and be themselves. Ex: a person telling their friends about the job interview they just had
work activity requiring the person to show particular emotions in the normal course of providing a service.
Broad themes of t-shirt study
Usually had brand names, status claims, moral messages, or youth culture
Social exchange theory
Analyzes social interactions in terms of valued outcomes to the participants. assumes people are motivated by self-interest, as measured by rewards and costs of actions. Tend to repeat highly rewarded actions and not repeat costly ones.
Norm of reciprocity
If you give someone something you expect them to give you something of equal value in return.
The process through which people affect one another through actions, interpretations of actions and response to actions.
Forms of social interaction
Cooperation, conflict, competition, coercion
Is interaction among people or groups in which they act together to achieve a common goal which might not be achievable acting along. Without cooperation society would not exist
The struggle for a limited resource having value to different participants often requiring the defeat of others to achieve a goal.
Occurs when one person or group forces its will on another based on the threat of physical force or violence. Ex:Street gangs assaulting people
Is conflict governed by rules limiting the conflict