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Combo with "Anatomy: Nervous System" and 1 other
Terms in this set (80)
What are the two main divisions of the nervous system?
What major organs are included in the Central Nervous System?
brain and spinal cord
What major organs are included in the Peripheral Nervous System?
Any neural tissue outside of CNS
What are the two divisions of the Peripheral Nervous System?
What are the two divisions of the efferent division of the PNS?
Somatic division of the efferent of the PNS
controls skeletal muscles
Autonomic division of the efferent of the PNS
controls subconscious, divided into sympathetic (stimulating) and parasympathetic (relaxing)
What are the two components of neural tissue?
What are the specialized organelles of the cell body?
Neurofibris & Nissi bodies
bundles of neurofilaments that support dendrite/axon
provide protein molecules needed for transmission at nerve impulses
Nodes of Ranvier
small gaps between adjacent Schwann cells
found at end of axon
regions of CNS with myelinated axons
regions of CNS with unmyelinated nerves
Types of neurons
transmit nerve impulses to brain and spinal cord
transmit nerve impulses away from brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands
conduct impulses from sensory to motor neurons
Types of neuroglia
- ependymal cells
- Schwann cells
-resemble epithelial cells
-form thin sheets that line fluid filled cavities in brain and spinal cord
-largest, most numerous of neuroglia
-form tight sheaths around the brain's blood capillaries
-blood brain barrier
-smaller than astrocytes
-hold nerve fibers together in brain and spinal cord
-produce fatty myelin sheath around nerve fibers in CNS
form myelin sheath around nerve fibers in PNS
engulf and destroy microbes and cellular debris
Roll of the presynaptic neuron
Roll of the postsynaptic neuron
between neurons and muscle
between neuron and gland
chemical messengers that are stored in the synaptic knob
-a difference in electrical charge across a cell's membrane due to the difference of ions on either side
- inside is typically less positive and outside is more positive
- due to sodium-potassium pump
-resting membrane potential is usually about -70mV & means that a neuron is not conducting messages
-occurs when a neuron is sending a message
-caused by explosion of electrical activity caused depolarizing current
- "All or None"
-magnitude of depolarization must reach threshold in order for action potential to start
-threshold stimulus: -5mV
Action Potential Definition
membrane potential of active neuron
when membrane potential moves toward zero
membrane potential moves back towards resting potential
when membrane potential moves away from zero (below normal resting potential
During step 1 of chemical synapse, what ion is released into the synaptic terminal?
Describe what happens when the neurotransmitters bind to their sites
The receptor changes shape and the ion channels open
Describe how the intensity of the nerve impulse (action potential) can be interpreted by what happens at the post synaptic membrane.
The higher the impulse frequency, the greater the number of synaptic vesicles that fuse and spill their contents
How are the effects of neurotransmitters terminated?
1) degradation by enzymes associated with the post synaptic membrane
2) re-uptake by astronauts or the presynaptic terminal
3) diffusion away from the synapse
What ion is in high concentration outside the neuron?
What ion is in high concentration inside the neuron?
Under resting conditions which ion leaks more, sodium leaking inward or the potassium leaking outward?
Potassium leaking outward
The outside of the cell is___, the inside of the cell is___
What is the speed of action potential related to?
Size of the axon
Neurons communicate with other neurons at ___
What are the chemical messengers called?
What is the normal membrane resting potential in a cell?
The nerve cell that carries impulses from a sense receptor to the brain or spinal cord
The nerve cell that connects sensory and motor neurons
The nerve cell that transmits impulses from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland
The long fiber that carries the nerve impulses
A bundle of axons
The connection between adjacent neurons
The chemical secreted into the gap between neurons at a synapse
The covering of fatty material that speeds up the passage of nerve impulses
The structure at the end of an axon that produces neurotransmitters to transmit the mere impulse across the synapse
These highly branched high surface area formations reach out from a nerve cell collect sensory information and are known as ____
These types of cells insulate the axon
This is the structure where chemical signals are sent out
Synaptic terminal/ presynaptic membrane
These structures contain bundles of neurofilaments which support axons and dendrites
What happens to the charge on the inner membrane when a depolarizing event occurs?
What ion movement helps generate the Action Potential wave?
Sodium rushes across the membrane from out to in
In what TWO ways is the ion balance maintained before and after the AP wave?
Diffusion, calcium and potassium pumps
Which ion has a greater rate of diffusion AND which direction does it diffuse?
In the mylenated axon, the process by which the AP wave jumps is called ____?
Where does the ion exchange occur along this mylenated axon?
The nodes on ranvier
What is the name of the spherical sacs that carry neurotransmitters?
What happens when the AP wave reaches the synaptic terminal?
Calcium channels open
What is the primary mechanism by which neurotransmitters travel across the synaptic cleft?
What do neurotransmitters bind to?
Proteins on the post synaptic membrane
What happens after the neurotransmitters are bound?
Sodium channels open
What does calcium due to vesicles?
Drives the vesicles towards the membrane
Where do the vesicles bind?
Pre synaptic membrane
This division of the Peripheral Nervous System carries SENSORY information
This part of the nervous system is responsible for PROCESSING information
Central Nervous System
This part of the Peripheral Nervous System controls skeletal muscles
This is a type of neuroglia that forms tight sheaths around the brain's blood capillaries
This type of neuroglia engulfs and destroys microbes
Hierarchy of divisions in the nervous system
PNS-> Afferent and Efferent-> Autonomic and Somatic
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