Lesson 5: Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins (Clinically Significant Proteins- Prealbumin & Albumin)

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NeonatesTheir reference interval of prealbumin is half than the adultsPubertyAt What period in our lives does prealbumin increase?after 50At what age does prealbumin levels start to decrease?AlbuminMost abundant plasma protein66,438 DaMW of Albumin:-12Albumin has a net negative charge of ____ at neutral pH10mmol/LAlbumin contributes about ______ to the anion gap at normal concentrationshepatocytesAlbumin is synthesized by theColloidal osmotic pressure, the Protein intakeRate of albumin is controlled by15-19 daysHalf-life of albuminCatabolism, Gastrointestinal tract, Glomerular filtrationAlbumin can be lost through the following routesAlbuminServes as a storage form for amino acidsAlbuminMajor component of colloid osmotic pressureAlbuminTransporter for a diverse range of substances (especially hydrophobic metabolites and drugs, it has 6 binding sites on its molecule)Dehydration, Artifactual Increased in Albumin levels results toArtifactualProlonged tourniquet applicationPostural changes, Strenuous exercise, Fever3 Nonpathologic cause of IncreasestandingIn postural changes, albumin levels are pronounced in what position?first or second voided specimenAlbumin levels is decreased by collecting what type of specimen?Acute phase response, Kidney Disease, Hepatic Disease, Gastrointestinal, Protein nutrition, Burn Injury, Edema & AscitisDecreased Albumin levels results to?Acute phase responseNegative acute phase reactantIncreasing capillary permeability, Decrease synthesis in response to inflammatory cytokines, Increased quantities of acute-phase reactants contribute to oncotic pressure, Increasing the catabolism of albumin by cells.Acute phase response lowers albumin levels byKidney DiseaseLoss from glomerular filtration10 mg/dayOnly about _____________ excreted in the urine as microalbuminuriaHepatic DiseaseNot decreased until parenchymal damage or loss is severe (>50%)Gastrointestinal LossDue to protein-losing enteropathyMenetrier's DiseaseExcessive proliferation of the gastric mucosa, producing diffuse thickening of the wallhypertrophic gastritisOther term for Menetrier's DiseaseCrohn's DiseaseInflammation of the GIT, usually in the terminal ileumCrohn's DiseaseChronic, relapsing disease that produces bouts of diarrhea cramping in the abdomen and fever.Ulcerative ColitisA recurrent acute and chronic disorder characterized by extensive inflammatory ulceration in the mucous membranes and the submucosa of the colonUlcerative ColitisCharacterized by bloody, mucoid diarrhea brought on by physical or emotional stress.Protein-Calorie MalnutritionAlbumin concentrations vary directly with adequacy of intakeBurn InjurySevere loss of albumin from woundsBurn InjuryCombined effects of Epithelial losses, Accelerated catabolism, Stimulation of acute phase responseEdema and AscitesOccurs secondary to increased vascular permeability which permits the loss of albuminDye Binding MethodsAlbumin binds the dye causing a shift in its absorption spectrum.Bromcresol purpleA dye that is more specific for albumin and yields lower values than BCGSalt FractionationGlobulins are separated from albumin using salting-out procedures such as Sodium sulfateDye-Binding Methods, Sal FractionationST for Albumin35-52 g/LReference interval of Albumin for adults aged 20-6010-15%By what percentage does albumin increase when an individual is standing?