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in Chinese history is a highly educated civil servant who entered goverment only after passing examinations


the art of beautiful handwriting


term that describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T'ang Dynasty; a unification of Daoist or Buddhist metaphysics with Confucian pragmatism


collectively, the educated, or well-lettered, members of society; scholarly people


a relief printmaking process in which the artist carves from the surface of a block of wood an image the printing areas of which are higher than the surrounding non-printing areas

Fan Kuan, Travelling in Streams and Mountains. Northern Song Dynasty

Su Shi, Fragments of calligraphy. Northern Song Dynasty

Guo Xi, Early Spring. Northern Song Dynasty

Emperor Hui Zong, Five-Colored Parakeet on a Branch of Apricot Blossom. Northern Song Dynasty

Emperor Hui Zong, Auspicious Cranes. Northern Song Dynasty

Xia Gui, Pure and Remote Views of Hills and Streams. Southern Song Dynasty

Ma Yuan, On a Mountain Path in Spring. Southern Song Dynasty

Zhao Mengfu, Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains. Yuan Dynasty

Li Kan, Bamboo and Rocks. Yuan Dynasty

Yan Liben, Emperor and Attendants from Thirteen Emperors Scroll. Tang Dynasty

Zhou Fang, Court Ladies Adorning Their Hair. Tang Dynasty

Zhou Fang, Court Lady Tuning the Lute. Tang Dynasty

Pillow in the form of a boy and a lotus leaf, Early 12th Century. Ding ware, Northern Song Dynasty

Dish with dragon chasing a pearl, Early 12th Century. Ding ware, Northern Song Dynasty

Vase, Ru ware. Northern Song Dynasty


pale green colored ceramics.

Mandate of Heaven

a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source


a ceramic made of fine clay baked at very high temperatures

ru ware

nearly white to deep robin's egg colored ceramics covered in reddish-brown crackles

ding ware

ivory-white or creamy white colored ceramics.

Tea Bowl, Temmoku ware. Northern Song Dynasty

Platter, painted with underglaze cobalt blue, 14th Century. Yuan Dynasty

Dragon silk robe for the Emperor, Qing Dynasty

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