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Life Science Chapter 7
Terms in this set (43)
a characteristic that improves an individual's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
a group of organisms that are closely related and can mate to produce fertile offspring
the process in which inherited characteristics within a population change over generations such that new species sometimes arise
the trace or remains of an organism that lived long ago, most commonly preserved in sedimentary rock
a historical sequence of life indicated by fossils found in layers of Earth's crust
a genetically determined characteristic
the human practice of breeding animals or plants that have certain desired traits
the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment survive and reproduce more successfully than less well adapted individuals do; a theory to explain the mechanism of evolution
the period between the birth of one's generation and the birth of the next generation
the formation of new species as a result of evolution
How does adaptation help an organism?
It improves its ability to survive and reproduce.
If living things have the same characteristics, they may be members of the same:
One way to tell kinds of animals apart is by their:
Two organisms that can mate to produce offspring that can reproduce belong to the same:
When members of the same species live in the same place, they form a:
Since life began on Earth, many _______ have vanished and many new ones have appeared.
Scientists have observed that species __________ over time.
The inherited __________ in populations also change over time.
What can result as populations of organisms change?
The process in which populations gradually change over time is called:
Where is evidence that organisms have changed over time buried?
within Earth's crust
What is a fossil?
trace remains of an organism that lived long ago
How is a fossil usually formed:
When a dead organism is covered by a layer of sediment, over time more sediment settles on top of the organism, minerals in the sediment may seep into the organism and gradually replace the organism with stone. If an organism rots away completely after being covered, it may leave an imprint of itself in the rock.
What is the timeline of life formed by studying fossils called?
a fossil record
How are fossils organized in the fossil record?
by their estimated ages and physical similarities
Fossils in newer layers of the Earth tend to resemble current
In older layers of the Earth, are fossils are less likely to resemble today's animals or plants?
less likely because organisms change over time
The fossil record provides evidence about:
the order in which species have existed
All living things inherit similar traits from their:
As scientists study the fossil record, they may draw models to illustrate their _______ about the relationships between extinct and living organisms.
How is a new species or group of species represented in the scientist's model?
By a branch
Name two groups of animals that may share a common ancestor with whales:
Camels and llamas or Pigs and peccaries
Scientists think that all mammal species alive today evolved from common:
Scientists have combined information on hundreds of thousands of organisms to sketch out a ___________ that includes all known organisms.
tree of life
What does the lack of a fossil record for some of Earth's history mean to scientists?
that their information is incomplete
In addition to fossils, how can scientists learn about an organism's ancestors?
by examining the living organism
Name three things about whales that tell scientists that they are not fish.
breathing air, giving birth to live young, and producing milk
What does a whale body have that hints it had an ancestor that lived on land?
tiny hip bones
If you compared two kinds of living organisms, what might you learn about their history?
whether they share a common ancestor.
What do organisms inherit from ancestors?
traits and DNA
What makes the human head similar to a dolphin's flipper or a bat's wing?
the structure and order of bones
What does the similarity between humans, dolphins, cats, and bats indicate?
that they share a common ancestor
Because all existing species have DNA, scientists support the theory that all species share:
a common ancestor
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