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What is mainly used as the fuel source for constructing ATP?
The transfer of electrons during chemical reactions.
Why are electron transport chains better at harvesting energy than moving directly to the final electron acceptor?
Less energy is wasted if it is released in small amounts over many small steps.
What is substrate level phosphorylation
When an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP.
In the following redox reaction, which compound is oxidized and which is reduced? C6H6O5 + NAD+ → C4H4O5 + NADH + H+
NAD+ is reduced and C6H6O5 is oxidized
Why does glycolysis initially require energy?
Some of the enzymes in the initial steps must be phosphorylated in order to function.
Why does pyruvate need to be transferred into the mitochondria via active transport?
It is a charged molecule that requires transport proteins to travel through the mitochondrial membrane.
What chemical does pyruvate get changed to in a series of enzymatic reactions before entering the Krebs cycle?
What are the products of the breakdown of one glucose molecule during the Krebs cycle?
6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP
Which products of glycolysis and the Krebs cycle are used to power oxidative phosphorylation?
NADH and FADH2
What is the function of NADH and FADH2?
They are used to shuttle electrons to the electron transport chain.
As you move through the compounds in the electron transport chain, the compounds become:
What powers ATP synthases?
The hydrogen ion gradient that is established with the electron transport chain.
The process of hydrogen ions flowing through ATP synthases to produce ATP is referred to as:
How is fermentation different in humans and yeast cells?
In humans, the end product is lactic acid. In yeast, the end product is alcohol.
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