Adult adolescent 10-12

Terms in this set (219)

Human beings are works in progress that mistakenly think they're finished.
Illusion that 'now' we are our complete identity and it will be stable for the rest of our lives.
The person you are right now is as transient, fleeting and temporary.
We are terrible predictors of our future selves

How do people's personal values change over time? The "end of history" illusion.

Time is a powerful force, which we have fundamental misconceptions about.
It reshapes our values.
It alters our personalities.
It transforms our preferences.

Cross sectional study asked half of participants to predict how much their values would change in the next 10 years, and the others to report how much their values had changed in the last 10 years.
Perceived rate of change slows over the lifespan, but not nearly as much as we think.
At every age, from 18 to 68, people vastly underestimated how much change they would experience over the next 10 years.
Five fundamental dimensions of personality: neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness.
Asked people how much they expected to change over the next 10 years, and also how much they had changed over the last 10 years
Found once again, the rate of change does slow as we age, but at every age, people underestimate how much their personalities will change in the next decade.
Likes and dislikes - basic preferences (friends, ideal vacation, hobbies, music):
Asked, "Do you think that that will change over the next 10 years?" and "Did that change over the last 10 years?"
People predict that the friend they have now is the friend they'll have in 10 years, the vacation they most enjoy now is the one they'll enjoy in 10 years, and yet, people who are 10 years older all say, "Eh, you know, that's really changed."
Consequences of these mis-predictions:
bedevils our decision-making in important ways.
we overpay for the opportunity to indulge our current preferences because we overestimate their stability.

Why is there a disconnect between how much we think we'll change and how much we do?
Not entirely sure, but believe it has to do with the ease of remembering vs. the difficulty of imagining.
"I can't imagine that" = own lack of imagination, not unlikelihood of event
Easy to see in retrospect.
It is concerned with the motivation behind the choices that people make without any external influence and interference. SDT focuses on the degree to which an individual's behavior is self-motivated and self-determined.[1]
ntrinsic motivation refers to initiating an activity for its own sake because it is interesting and satisfying in itself, as opposed to doing an activity to obtain an external goal (extrinsic motivation).
three psychological needs motivate the self to initiate behavior and specify nutriments that are essential for psychological health and well-being of an individual. These needs are said to be universal, innate and psychological and include the need for competence, autonomy, and psychological relatednessExtrinsic motivation comes from external sources. Deci and Ryan[15] developed Organismic Integration Theory (OIT), as a sub-theory of SDT, to explain the different ways in which extrinsically motivated behaviour is regulated.

OIT details the different forms of extrinsic motivation and the contexts in which they come about. It is the context of such motivation that concerns the SDT theory as these contexts affect whether the motivations are internalised and so integrated into the sense of self.

OIT describes four different types of extrinsic motivations that often vary in terms of their relative autonomy:

Externally regulated behaviour: Is the least autonomous, it is performed because of external demand or possible reward. Such actions can be seen to have an externally perceived locus of control.[10]
Introjected regulation of behaviour: describes taking on regulations to behaviour but not fully accepting said regulations as your own. Deci and Ryan[19] claim such behaviour normally represents regulation by contingent self-esteem, citing ego involvement as a classic form of introjections.[20] This is the kind of behaviour where people feel motivated to demonstrate ability to maintain self-worth. While this is internally driven Deci and Ryan say introjected behaviour is on an externally perceived locus of control because they aren't perceived as part of self.
Regulation through identification: Is a more autonomy driven form of extrinsic motivation. It involves consciously valuing a goal or regulation so that said action is accepted as personally important.
Integrated Regulation: Is the most autonomous kind of extrinsic motivation. Occurring when regulations are fully assimilated with self so they are included in a person's self evaluations and beliefs on personal needs. Because of this, integrated motivations share qualities with intrinsic motivation but are still classified as extrinsic because the goals that are trying to be achieved are for reasons extrinsic to the self, rather than the inherent enjoyment or interest in the task.