Feeling or affective state
Indicator system of intuitive reactions to events/context
Increases in complexity across the lifespan:
-Primary Emotions: joy, anger, sadness, fear, disgust
-Evolve in increasing complexity
-Higher order emotions involve self-conscious thought - requires an awareness of self/other:
Empathy, jealousy, embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt, contempt
Parent Responsiveness: quick, comforting reactions from parents help to establish a solid parent/child attachment, which sets the child's patterns regarding exploration of environment & sense of relationships security:
Secure: exploration, mild protest when left, positive receipt when return
Insecure Avoidant: low engagement, no distress when left, poor receipt and avoidance when return
Insecure Resistant: anxiously attached, strong protest when left, no exploration, resist comforting when return
Insecure Disorganized: confused or fearful, strong patterns of avoidance or resistance, often indicates abuse or neglect of some kind in the home environment.
Lesson 1: Vulnerability is not weakness.
Vulnerability = emotional risk, exposure, uncertainty
Essential to whole-hearted living
Our most accurate measurement of courage
Birthplace of innovation, creativity and change
Lesson 2: Shame is an epidemic in our culture, and we have to talk about it.
Shame is a belief about self (similar to fixed mindset), guilt is a focus on behavior (similar to growth mindset).
Shame is highly, highly correlated with addiction, depression, violence, aggression, bullying, suicide, eating disorders. And here's what you even need to know more.
Guilt, inversely correlated with those things.
People who don't experience shame have no capacity for connection or empathy. Which means, yes, I have a little shame; no, I'm a sociopath. So I would opt for, yes, you have a little shame.
Shame drives two big tapes:
"never good enough"
"who do you think you are?"
Women: do it all, do it perfectly and never let them see you sweat. Web of unobtainable, conflicting, competing expectations about who we're supposed to be.
What do women need to do to conform to female norms?
Use all available resources for appearance
Men: not competing, conflicting expectations. Shame is one - do not be perceived as weak.
What do men need to do to conform to male norms?
Human beings are works in progress that mistakenly think they're finished.
Illusion that 'now' we are our complete identity and it will be stable for the rest of our lives.
The person you are right now is as transient, fleeting and temporary.
We are terrible predictors of our future selves
How do people's personal values change over time? The "end of history" illusion.
Time is a powerful force, which we have fundamental misconceptions about.
It reshapes our values.
It alters our personalities.
It transforms our preferences.
Cross sectional study asked half of participants to predict how much their values would change in the next 10 years, and the others to report how much their values had changed in the last 10 years.
Perceived rate of change slows over the lifespan, but not nearly as much as we think.
At every age, from 18 to 68, people vastly underestimated how much change they would experience over the next 10 years.
Five fundamental dimensions of personality: neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness.
Asked people how much they expected to change over the next 10 years, and also how much they had changed over the last 10 years
Found once again, the rate of change does slow as we age, but at every age, people underestimate how much their personalities will change in the next decade.
Likes and dislikes - basic preferences (friends, ideal vacation, hobbies, music):
Asked, "Do you think that that will change over the next 10 years?" and "Did that change over the last 10 years?"
People predict that the friend they have now is the friend they'll have in 10 years, the vacation they most enjoy now is the one they'll enjoy in 10 years, and yet, people who are 10 years older all say, "Eh, you know, that's really changed."
Consequences of these mis-predictions:
bedevils our decision-making in important ways.
we overpay for the opportunity to indulge our current preferences because we overestimate their stability.
Why is there a disconnect between how much we think we'll change and how much we do?
Not entirely sure, but believe it has to do with the ease of remembering vs. the difficulty of imagining.
"I can't imagine that" = own lack of imagination, not unlikelihood of event
Easy to see in retrospect.
*A.K.A. Big 5/SLOAN/NEO-PI/OCEAN/CANOE
"ways in which individuals differ in their enduring emotional, interpersonal, experiential, attitudinal, and motivational styles." (McCrae & Costa, 1992, p. 175)
"Traits are enduring qualities or attributes that predispose individual to behave consistently across situations." (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2004, p. 437)
Traits: stable dispositional styles and reaction patterns.
McCrae and John (1992) discuss cross-cultural consistencies and differences of the personality structure.
Some cultures supported the same five-factor model.
Some cultures supported five factors, but the factors have different meanings.
Language and meaning, the lexical considerations, are considered key to differences.
Extraversion: outgoing, talkative, active.
Agreeableness: kindness, generosity, forgiveness.
Conscientiousness: organization, reliability, how responsible.
Neuroticism: anxiety, worry, emotional fluctuation.
Openness to Experience: curiosity, novelty-seeking, artistic.
higher and lower scores
Estrogens: cyclical process, incl. estradiol in ovaries
Androgens (both in adrenal glands): incl. testosterone in testes
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia - high androgens in girls, more male identification
Androgen insensitive males - genetically male, but no androgen cells. Develop as females physiologically and often in identity.
Pelvic field defect - castrated at birth, raised female. Feel strongly male.
5-alpha reductase deficiency syndrome: Sambia, New Guinea/Dominican Republic: guevedoche, which means "penis at twelve."
Note: biological sex generally prevails and supersedes the individual's previous gender socialization.
Social Factors may influence gender expression
Oxytocin: "the cuddle hormone" v. dopamine v. vasopressin
*Evolutionary View: males prefer short term mating strategies, competition, risk. Females prefer securing long term mate, resources, devoted parenting. Agree/disagree?
Gender Roles: Social expectations and preconceptions
stereotyping: Adherence to normative roles (masculine, feminine)
Social role theory: Social hierarchy and division of labor are important causes of gender differences in power, assertiveness, and nurturing
Social-cognitive theory: Children's gender development results from observing and imitating, then being either punished or rewarded for gendered behavior.
Socialization strategies: mother/father via boy/girl.
Tomboy/sissy - less stigma to dressing as boy than girl.
African American communities, Hispanic, Asian, White, Regional differences.
*Psychoanalytic theory: children develop attraction to opposite-sex parent, renounces it because of anxious feelings, then begins to identify with same-sex parent (not empirically validated/debunked)
Psychologically prepared? Hiigh correlation to drugs, delinquency.
Early intercourse associated with poor parent/child communication, early period, alcohol
Inner city = higher rates of sexually active youth.
Contextual factors that contribute? SES, Parent/Family relationships (discussions about sex, monitoring, communication), peers (modeling, permissiveness), siblings (tendency to copycat), etc.
school connection, spirituality, and strong cultural background are positive moderators.
Attention and Self-regulation/impulse control: ADHD more precocious/early explorers.
61% use condoms, 34% don't - rates are improved but not universal.
Alternatives: IUD, Birth Control, Fertility Awareness (Apps)
Pregnancy rates have fallen, Latina ^increased
Children of teenage mothers likely to become teenage mothers.
Often from low SES: cyclical effect of poverty.
Teen motherhood - harder to return to education, compete economically. Higher risk for delinquency, substance use, mental health issues.
Decrease due to other priorities: career, family, decreased energy/health, etc.
Most common problems for men: early ejaculation and sexual dysfunction.
Most common problems for women: lack of interest, lubrication.
Menopause (39-59). Later = ^ risk of breast cancer.
Perimenopause (up to 10 years prior): hot flashes, nausea, fatigue, depression, headaches, moodiness, palpitations. All worsened by weight, smoking, drinking.
Hormone Replacement Therapy leads to ^ risk of stroke, cardiovascular issues. Advise discontinue. Only prolongs the inevitable.
Alternatives to ease menopause: exercise, diet, supplements, acupuncture, etc.
Cross cultural variation may be due to genetics, diet, etc.
Women's decision whether to bear children. "biological clock". Experts advising >40 now, or considered high risk. Also statistics imply women do not feel as driven to motherhood as previous generations. Why?
Moderate decrease in sexual drive/motivation, often linked to declining energy and increased stressors (work/family).
Erections - less full, less frequent, require more stimulation.
Physiological contributors: lack of exercise, smoking, hypertension, etc.
Psychological contributors: low self-esteem/confidence, relationship problems, stressors.
Increased use of ED Prescriptions.
Of the last 10,000 years: the impact of women in the workforce
Women's verbal ability, people skills, negotiating skills.
Woman as Web thinkers: contextual, holistic thinkers. Brains better connected, more complex patterns, highly imaginative.
Men as linear thinkers: remove extraneous information, goal focused, and systematic, step-by-step thinking pattern.
The rise of female sexual expression:
Western world, women start sex sooner, have more partners, express less remorse for the partners that they do, marry later, have fewer children, leave bad marriages in order to get good ones.
Marriage equality: "symmetrical" or "companionate" marriage of 21st Century.
Of the last 25 years: the aging world population.
The older you get, the less likely you are to divorce.
Viagra, estrogen replacement, hip replacements
It is concerned with the motivation behind the choices that people make without any external influence and interference. SDT focuses on the degree to which an individual's behavior is self-motivated and self-determined.
ntrinsic motivation refers to initiating an activity for its own sake because it is interesting and satisfying in itself, as opposed to doing an activity to obtain an external goal (extrinsic motivation).
three psychological needs motivate the self to initiate behavior and specify nutriments that are essential for psychological health and well-being of an individual. These needs are said to be universal, innate and psychological and include the need for competence, autonomy, and psychological relatednessExtrinsic motivation comes from external sources. Deci and Ryan developed Organismic Integration Theory (OIT), as a sub-theory of SDT, to explain the different ways in which extrinsically motivated behaviour is regulated.
OIT details the different forms of extrinsic motivation and the contexts in which they come about. It is the context of such motivation that concerns the SDT theory as these contexts affect whether the motivations are internalised and so integrated into the sense of self.
OIT describes four different types of extrinsic motivations that often vary in terms of their relative autonomy:
Externally regulated behaviour: Is the least autonomous, it is performed because of external demand or possible reward. Such actions can be seen to have an externally perceived locus of control.
Introjected regulation of behaviour: describes taking on regulations to behaviour but not fully accepting said regulations as your own. Deci and Ryan claim such behaviour normally represents regulation by contingent self-esteem, citing ego involvement as a classic form of introjections. This is the kind of behaviour where people feel motivated to demonstrate ability to maintain self-worth. While this is internally driven Deci and Ryan say introjected behaviour is on an externally perceived locus of control because they aren't perceived as part of self.
Regulation through identification: Is a more autonomy driven form of extrinsic motivation. It involves consciously valuing a goal or regulation so that said action is accepted as personally important.
Integrated Regulation: Is the most autonomous kind of extrinsic motivation. Occurring when regulations are fully assimilated with self so they are included in a person's self evaluations and beliefs on personal needs. Because of this, integrated motivations share qualities with intrinsic motivation but are still classified as extrinsic because the goals that are trying to be achieved are for reasons extrinsic to the self, rather than the inherent enjoyment or interest in the task.