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Sociology Exam 3
Terms in this set (66)
A system whereby people are divided based on social rank according to their relative power, property, and prestige.
In 2009 the poverty threshold for a family of four was $ 22,050.
A system in which some individuals are literally owned by others as their property.
Aspects of slavery
1. Temporary- like indentured servitude.
2. Not necessarily inheritable.
3. Slaves were not necessarily powerless or poor.
4. Wasn't as brutal as in US.
Reasons for Slavery
1. Committed a crime.
3. Prisoner of war
1. Most prevalent in India
2. Maintained by a system called endogamy (marrying within one's own group)
3. No social mobility
One in which inequalities are established by law. Some mobility.
3 categories of estate system
1. Aristocracy/gentry- dukes, earls, marquis, titled people
2. Clergy (military)
3. Commoners- serfs, peasants, merchants, artisans
Social mobility in Estate System
1. Can move up if a commoner is knighted for some special deed or service.
2. Can move up if a wealthy merchant purchases a title.
3. Can move up through marriage
Socioeconmic differences between groups of people that create differences in their material, prosperity, and power.
How class differs from other categories
1. Class systems are fluid- can move up and down.
2. Class positions are in some part achieved.
3. Class is economically based.
4. Class systems are large scale and impersonal.
Why is stratification universal?
1. Society must make certain that its positions are filled.
2. Some positions are more important than others.
3. The more important positions must be filled by the more qualified people.
4. To motivate the more qualified people to fill positions society must offer them greater rewards.
all positions are rewarded based on merit
Argued that capitalist society has created a unique system consisting of two classes whose relationship is based on the means of production.
1. Bourgeoisie- capitalists, the owners in society
2. Proletariat- workers
-Their is a psychological aspect to this called class consciousness.
A social class shared objective awareness of the common situation and interests of its members.
False Class Consciousness
A subjective understanding of one's situation that does not agree with one's objective reality.
Argued that social position is not simply based on property relations.
Weber's 3 Ps
1. Property- also called life chances, economic position in a society.
2. Prestige- also known as social honor or status. Not based on your relationship to property and it is possible to turn prestige into property.
3. Power- the ability to have one's way despite the resistance of others.
3 Forms of Power
1. Money- downside of this is it isn't infinite, also sometimes people can't be bought.
2. Force- Physically force people to do what you want, best when used sparingly.
3. Solidarity- best form of power, group unity, hardest to create.
*4. Love- unofficial form.
Nations that have highly diversified economies. They are industrialized/modernized. They have stable government with little class conflict and tend to be high income. Often referred to as "first world nations".
A combination of core and peripheral nations. Ex: Mexico- government is fairly stable but tends to have high levels of corruption. Have some specialized industries but not widespread.
On the opposite end of the spectrum. They tend to have weak political structures. Fairly low standard of living for its citizens and tend to have highly specialized economies- might only have one thing they export. Tend to be much less industrialized. Ex: Haiti
People do not have the means to secure the basic necessities of life.
When people can afford basic necessities but are unable to maintain an average standard of living.
Poverty threshold for US
$22,000 per year for a family of 4
Poverty and Age/Gender
-Children are more likely to be in poverty than older people.
-Older women are 2x more likely to be poor than older men.
-2/3 of all adults living in poverty are women- The feminization of poverty.
-Divorce tends to push women into poverty.
Men and Women- inequality in pay
Women earns $0.75- $0.78 for every $1.00 a man makes
Poverty and Race/Ethnicity
-African Americans and Latinos are more likely to live below the poverty line that whites.
-There is a larger % of whites in poverty.
Most aren't on it for a lifetime, typical amount of time is less than 3 years. Law states you can only be on it for 5 years now.
Inherited physical characteristics, biological.
Race and ethnicity
Not always hand in hand. Ex: African American (race) raised in Japan (ethnicity)
People who are singled out for unequal treatment and regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination.
-Generally some physical or cultural trait that distinguishes from the dominant group.
-Tend to practice endogomy (marry w/in own group).
-Tend to have a strong sense of solidarity.
Tend to have a greater power.
-More money, force, and solidarity.
-Have more priveleges.
-Have higher social status
-Tend to attribute their position to superiority and not to discrimination.
To prejudge someone
To take action against someone.
Legal discrimination, allowed because the laws of the land say its ok.
Discrimination based on custom.
-If two groups that come into contact are equal then prejudice goes down because their is no jealousy.
-If two unequal groups come into contact, prejudice and discrimination.
Bonancich Theory- Why people are willing to put up with discrimination
1. Often times people come from a very low standard of living so its worth the risk.
2. They lack the information to realize they are being exploited.
3. They lack political power to force legal change.
4. Economic motives may be different.
Prejudice results from frustration. People who are unable to strike out at the real source of their frustration find scapegoats to unfairly blame.
Gives us a profile of highly prejudice people.
1. Insecure 2. Conformists 3. Deeply submissive to authority 4. Older 5. Less educated 6. Less intelligent 7. From a lower social class
Prejudice is functional in that it creates in groups and out groups. It is dysfunctional in that it can destroy social relationships.
Argues that the capitalists system pits group against group. Benefitting by splitting workers along racial and ethnic lines, weakening solidarity and benefitting the employer. Split labor market.
The label's people learn color their perception. Labels are an essential ingredient in prejudice. Sometimes labels are applied in ways that don't make sense.
The actual or attempted anilation of a race or ethnic group. A group seen as less than fully human. Ex: nazi extermination of jews.
The involuntary movement of a minority group.
1. Indirect transfer- making life so terrible that the minority group leaves.
2. Direct transfer- Involves forced expulsion.
When a country's dominant group exploits its own minority group by using social institutions to deny access to full benefits.
One Drop Rule
Established during civil war. Even if you were only 1/3 black you were classified as black. Eliminated in 1982.
Keeping groups apart: goes hand in hand with internal colonialism.
The process by which a minority is absorbed into the mainstream; can be forced or permissable.
When the dominant group prohibits the minority group from using its culture.
When the miniority is allowed to adopt the dominant groups culture at its own pace. This is the way it is in US
When a society permits or encourages ethnic variation.
A biological factor
A social conception about what personality traits and behaviors are appropriate for members of each sex. *Can change
Different approach to gender. Men primp for the women.
Native American People who were transgender. Men dress and take on roles of women.
The numbers of one sex relative to the numbers of the opposite sex.
Systematic killing of female children. Done because there is a preference in society for boys.
Instances in which part of a community moves. Typically its the men who relocate first.
Health and Diet (Reasons for uneven sex ratio)
In some parts of the world men and children get to eat first and so when women get to their is little left.
Different life expectations (Reasons for uneven sex ratio)
Women tend to outlive men
Areas of inequality among genders
3. Healthcare- doctors are notorious for taking mens health concerns more seriously. Research has historically only used men in focus groups.
4. Media- male bias in media
6. Violence- ex: footbinding
Life Chances (Weber)
Refers to the extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and healthcare.
The social movement of individuals within their own lifetime.
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