Corresponds to L7, 8, 11

The Central Dogma

DNA -(Transcription)- RNA -(Translation)- Protein

messenger (mRNA)

RNA type, encodes amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. Transcripts of protein-coding genes.

ribosomal (rRNA)

RNA type, makes up ribosomes

transfer (tRNA)

RNA type, brings amino acids to ribosomes during translation.

small nuclear (snRNA)

RNA type, forms complexes with proteins, used in eukaryotic RNA processing to produce functional mRNA's.

Nuclear Triphosphates (NTP)

NTP - precursors for transcription (ATP, GTP, CTP, UTP).


A DNA region containing specific gene regulatory elements to which RNA polymerase binds for the initiation of transcription.


Sequence distal to a gene that signals the termination of transcription.


Enzyme consisting of a core enzyme form of RNA polymerase that initiates transcription.

Sigma Factor

Ensures RNA polymerase binds in a stable way to the right place during transcription.

RNA polymerase 1

RNA polymerase found in the nucleolus, catalyzes the synthesis of 3 RNA's found on ribosomes.

RNA polymerase 2

RNA polymerase found in the nucleoplasm. Synthesizes mRNA and some snRNA's.

RNA polymerase 3

RNA polymerase found in the nucleoplasm. Synthesizes tRNA, srRNA (small rRNA mol. found on ribosomes) and snRNA's not made by RNA pol. 2

Core Promoter

Found in Eukaryotes, the gene regulatory elements closest to the transcription start site that are required for RNA synthesis to begin at the correct nucleotide.

Promoter-proximal elements

Found in eukaryotes, gene regulatory elements that are located 50-200bp from the transcription start site and help determine the efficiency of transcription.


Found in eukaryotes, the major class of transcription regulatory proteins. Determine transcription initiation efficiency.


Sequence required for the maximum transcription of a gene.

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