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Sociology; Chapter 8
Key Terms and Self-Quiz Questions from the Summary at the end of Chapter 8, Sociology (13th Ed.) by Richard T. Shaefer. This set is best studied utilizing the random, or "shuffle" option.
Terms in this set (48)
Durkheim's term for the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.
Anomie Theory of Deviance
Robert Merton's theory of deviance as an adaptation of socially prescribed goals or of the means governing their attainment, or both
going along with peers - individuals of our own status who have no special right to direct our behavior.
a view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society's norms.
A violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties.
A school of criminology that argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions.
behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
a theory of deviance that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts.
Differences in the way social control is exercised over different groups.
Formal Social Control
Social control that is carried out by authorized agents, such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers.
a criminal offense committed because of the offender's bias against a race, religion, ethnic group, national origin, or sexual orientation.
-Also referred to as a "Bias Crime."
the eight types of crime reported annually by the FBI in the Uniform Crime Reports.
-motor vehicle theft
Informal Social Control
social control that is carried out casually by ordinary people through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule.
an approach to deviance that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants while others engaged in the same behavior are not.
Governmental Social Control.
Compliance with higher authorities in a heirarchical structure.
The work of a group that regulates relations among criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities, including prostitution, gambling, and the smuggling and sale of illegal drugs.
A person who pursues crime as a day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals.
a penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm.
Social Constructionist Perspective
an approach to deviance that emphasizes the role of culture in the creation of the deviant identity.
the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society.
Social Disorganization Theory
the theory that crime and deviance are caused by the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions.
Another name for "Labeling Theory."
a label used to devalue members of certain social groups.
Crime that occurs across multiple national borders.
a questionnaire or interview given to a sample of the population to determine whether people have been victims of crime.
A term used by sociologists to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services.
Illegal acts committed by affluent, "respectable" individuals in the course of business activities.
Society brings about acceptance of basic norms through techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior. This process is called ____.
Which sociological perspective argues that people must respect social norms if any group or society is to survive?
The Functionalist Perspective
Stanley Milgram used the word "conformity" to mean ____.
Going Along with Peers.
Which sociological theory suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to conform systematically to society's norms?
What is the definition of deviance?
Deviance is behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
Which sociologist illustrated the boundary-maintenance function of deviance in his study of Puritans in 17th-century New England?
What are the five basic forms of adaptation specified in Robert Merton's Anomie Theory of Deviance?
Which sociologist first advanced the idea that an individual undergoes the same basic socialization process whether learning conforming or deviant acts?
What theory contends that criminal victimization increases when communal relationships and social institutions break down?
Social Disorganization Theory
Which sociologist conducted observation research on two groups of high school males (The Saints and the Roughnecks) and concluded that social class played an important role in the varying fortunes of the two groups?
If we fail to respect and obey social norms, we may face punishment through informal or formal _____.
Police officers, judges, andministrators, employers, military officers, and managers of movie theaters, are all instruments of ______ social control.
Some norms are considered so important by a society that they are formalized into ______, controlling people's behavior.
It is important to underscore the fact that _______ is the primary source of conformity and obedience, including obedience to Law.
_______ is a state of normlessness that typically occurs during a period of profound social change and disorder, such as a time of economic collapse.
Labeling Theory is also called the ______-______ approach.
___(1)___ theorists view standards of deviant behavior as merely reflecting cultural norms, whereas ___(2)___ and ___(3)___ theorists point out that the most powerful groups in a society can shape laws and standards and determine who is (or is not) prosecuted as a criminal.
Feminists contend that prostitution and some forms of pornography are not _____ crimes.
Daniel Bell used the term _____ ______ to describe the process during which leadership of organized crime was transferred from Irish Americans to Jewish Americans and later to Italian Americans and others.
Consumer fraud, bribery, and income tax evasion, are considered _____ _____ crimes.
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