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50 terms

Geoscience

Test #2
STUDY
PLAY
what % of earths crust is composed of only 8 natural elements
99%
The 3 most abundant elements in Earth's crust are
oxygen,silicone, and aluminum
An element or combination of elements that forms a solid, inorganic, natural compound is called a
mineral
Mafic minerals are
dark colored and high density minerals
An assemblage of minerals bound together is called a
rock
The majority of Earth's crust is composed of
igneous rock
Salt is an example of
sedimentary rock
The ancient roots of mountains are usually composed of
metamorphic rock
Transgression is not part of what cycle
rock cycle
coal is a sedimentary rock and fossil fuel formed from
plants
A scale used to classify and describe the effects of earthquakes on terrain, construction, and local damage conditions is the
modified Mercalli scale
An earthquake, submarine landslide, or eruption of an undersea volcano is capable of producing a
tsunami
The motion of seismic waves is usually initiated in a subsurface location along the fault plane called the
focus
The wave amplitude associated with a magnitude 8 quake on the Richter scale is how many times greater than that of a magnitude 6 quake
100
On average, how often would you expect an earthquake of between moment magnitude 5.0-5.9 and Mercalli V-VII to occur
> 1,000 times per year
Which of the following mountain ranges resulted from tectonic collision between two continental landmasses
all of the above
Which of the following types of crustal deformation would you be most likely to find at a divergent plate boundary
normal fault
The asthenosphere can best be described as
plastic-like
Compared to oceanic crust, continental crust is
generally more complex in content and structure
If you wanted to avoid earthquakes, which of the following areas would be the safest to live
shield
Louis Agassiz called glacially deposited boulders that differ in composition and origin from the ground on which they rest:
erratics
The material in a glacial moraine is
unsorted
Which of the following is FALSE regarding the Pleistocene ice age epoch
it represents a single continuous cold spell
Which of the following is FALSE regarding the Pleistocene ice sheets in North America
at their maximum, they extend only to the present-day Canadian border
Pluvial lakes formed in the ________ during glacial intervals as a result of ________.
southwestern U.S.; a wetter climate and/or a climate characterized by lower evaporation rates
Knowledge of Earth's interior is derived primarily from
indirect evidence involving the analysis of seismic waves
The most active tectonic regions of North and South America are on the
western coasts
The _______ is one of Earth's major layers that is partially molten and is capable of flowing very slowly
asthenosphere
The eventual catastrophic eruption of Mount Saint Helens in 1980 was
related to seafloor subduction at the west coast of North America.
Which of the following statements regarding the principal locations of volcanic activity is FALSE
Volcanoes occur around the perimeter of the Atlantic Ocean basin.
Which of the following lists of processes are in the correct sequence as to their occurrence in nature
weathering, erosion, transport, deposition
Which of the following landforms is incorrectly matched with a drainage pattern
topographically disrupted areas - parallel
Which of the following is TRUE of the snowline
The snowline decreases in elevation with increasing latitude
Which of the following is TRUE of glacial movement
The rate of internal flow is greater than the rate of basal flow
When two valley glaciers join together, they form a _______ at the point where they merge
medial moraine
The opposite of the accumulation zone in a glacier is the
ablation zone
The largest material that can be carried by a stream is carried as
bed load
For glacial-interglacial cycles, glaciation takes about _______ to develop, whereas deglaciation requires about _______ years
90,000; 10,000
Creation of a local base level through construction of a dam and reservoir on a river
would cause sediment accumulate upstream from the dam in response to decreased flow velocity.
Consider the equation Q = wdv. According to the equation, if Q (discharge) remains constant, but w and d decrease (as when a channel becomes more narrow and shallow), the velocity will
increase
Assume a warm air parcel at Earth's surface has a temperature of 21ºC (70ºF) and begins to rise upward. Assume it becomes saturated at 1000 m (3300 ft) altitude, and continues to rise to 2000 m (6600 ft) altitude. What would be the approximate temperature of the air parcel be at an elevation of 2000 m (6600 ft)
5ºC (41.0ºF)
When water freezes, its density
decreases
If water behaved like most other compounds, the
A and C only
_______ calories of _______ are required to convert 1 g of ice to liquid water
80; latent heat
Which of the following is true of precipitation in North America
The highest amounts occur in the Southeast and Northwest
Which of the following would make the best aquifer
uncemented sand that is loosely compacted
The line of contact between the zone of aeration and the zone of saturation is known as the
water table
The high plains aquifer
received much of its water from melting glaciers in the past
Which of the following soil particle sizes is usually associated with the slowest recharge rate
clay
The term "cone of depression" refers to
a depression in the water table formed by rapid groundwater withdrawal