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compare weight and gender discrimination

Weight discrimination exceeds race or gender discrimination and is at every stage of employment


a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members


often support prejudice. A belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. Stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information. May be positive or negative

southerners are more....



unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members


1. An individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race, or 2. Institutional practices that subordinate people of a given race


1. An individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex, or 2. Institutional practices that subordinate people of a given sex

Prejudice provides one of the best examples of our _____: ____

dual attitudes system

different implicit and explicit attitudes toward a target

implicit attitudes change with _____

new habits through practice

Prejudiced and stereotypic evaluations can occur outside of _____

people's awareness

Most people see others as ____prejudiced than they are


Prejudiced attitudes and discriminatory behavior surface when ______

they can hide behind the screen of some other motive.

In many places, blatant prejudice is being replaced by _______

subtle prejudice - "modern racism" or "cultural racism"

Modern prejudice appears as______that leads to_____ and ______.

racial sensitivity

exaggerated reactions to isolated minority persons and patronization

Implicit attitudes have/have not been linked with discriminatory behavior (ex: physicians who scored poorly on IAT discriminated against black patients)


Different brain regions are involved in____ and ____stereotyping

automatic and consciously controlled

Outgroups that elicit the most disgust elicit brain activity in areas associated with _____, like the _____. When we think about groups we identify with, we use bits of _____

disgust and avoidance

amygdala (more primitive)

our frontal lobes.

Norms are _______. Stereotypes are ______



Gender stereotypes are much stronger than____ stereotypes.


stereotypes of men and women: accurate? and what are they

Stereotypes of men and women's restlessness, nonverbal sensitivity, aggressiveness, and so forth are pretty accurate.

Stereotypes are not _____


Attitudes toward_____ have changed almost as rapidly as attitudes towards blacks.


Women-are-wonderful effect

people perceive women more favorably

Ambivalent sexism has been found toward men:

benevolent attitudes such as powerful and hostile attitudes such as immoral

Those who endorse benevolent attitudes toward women also:

have them toward men

Men are _____ times more likely to commit suicide and be murdered


men are more likely _____

Men are more often mentally retarded or have autism. Also more likely to be in special ed

do women discriminate against women?

Women discriminate against women - lower ratings for article. But really most studies find no difference. Experiments have not demonstrated an overall tendency to devalue women's work.

Sources of social prejudice: (3)

social inequalities, socialization, and social institutions

Unequal status breeds....


We see other groups as competent or likeable, but _____

often not as both

Social dominance orientation

a motivation to have one's group dominate other social groups

The desire to be on top leads people high in social dominance to (2):

embrace prejudice and to support political positions that justify prejudice.

children's attitudes vs parents'

Children's prejudice often mirrors those perceived of their mothers. Even implicit attitudes mirror parents' explicit prejudice


believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having corresponding disdain for all other groups

is prejudice local?

Prejudice is not often toward one group. It is all around.

marks of a prejudicial person

Tend to have an intolerance for weakness, a punitive attitude, and a submissive respect for the authority in their group

Authoritarian personality:



why concerned with power and status?

a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgroups and those in lower status. Particularly prone to engage in prejudice and stereotyping

As children, they often faced harsh discipline. Project hostility to outgroups

The insecurity of authoritative children seemed to predispose them toward an excessive concern with power and status

Authoritarian tendencies surge during____

threatening times of economic recession and political upheaval

"Double highs"

people high in social dominance orientation and authoritarian personality

Among the most prejudiced people in society

Predisposed to be leaders of hate groups

Authoritarianism and social dominance have same/different ideological roots:

Authoritarian - concern with security and control

Social dominance- concern for one's group status

2 Conclusions about North American Christianity:

1. Church members express more racial prejudice than non church members

2. Those who are more traditional or fundamentalist are more prejudice than those that are progressive

Once established, prejudice is maintained mainly by ____


People are more likely to favor or oppose discrimination after _______

hearing someone else do so

what maintains gender prejudice?


Women conform to roles and we think they belong there.

_____ are one of the institutions most prone to reinforce dominant cultural attitudes.


Institutional supports are often _____ and ______

unintended and unnoticed


⅔ of average male photos but less than ⅓ of female photos were devoted just to the face.

People's whose faces are prominent in photos seem to be more intelligent and ambitious.

"displaced aggression"

when the cause of our frustration is intimidating or unknown, we often redirect our hostility

Ethnic peace is more easily attained during ____

prosperous times

Realistic group conflict theory

the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources

Anti-black prejudices has occurred among what whites?

Whites closest to blacks on the socioeconomic ladder

Social identity

the "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to the who am I? Question that comes from our group memberships

Social identity theory: (3)

We categorize others

We identify: we have in-groups

We compare: we contrast our ingroups with outgroups


"us" - a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity


"them" - a group that people perceive as distinctively different from them or apart from their ingroup

When people's personal and social identities become fused, then what?

they are more willing to fight or die for their group.

The more attached we are to our groups, the more_____ from other groups

prejudicially we judge threats

Ingroup bias

the tendency to favor one's own group

Ingroup bias is another example of _____

the human quest for a positive self-concept

BIRGing occurs most in those who ______

have just received an ego blow

We are more prone to ingroup bias when our group is (2):

small and lower in status relative to the outgroup

Outgroup stereotypes prosper when :

people feel their ingroup identity keenl

We ascribe uniquely human emotions more easily to _____

ingroup members


denying human characteristics to outgroup members

ingroup bias: seeing us as good or them as bad?

Ingroup bias results at least as much from perceiving that one's own group is good as from a sense that other groups are bad

SES and self-image: prejudice level

Prejudice is higher among those who are low or slipping on the socioeconomic ladder or those whose self-image is threatened

Terror management

people's self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortality

affirm and threaten someone: effect on outgroup evaluation

Affirm people and they will evaluate an outgroup more positively. Threaten their self-esteem and they will make up for it by denigrating an outgroup

People low and high in prejudice sometimes have similar automatic prejudicial responses. why?

Unwanted thoughts and feelings often persist.

An _____center in the brain becomes more active when a person sees the face of a person of another race

emotional processing

When motivation to inhibit prejudice is internal/external, it can be inhibited.


Stereotyped beliefs and prejudiced attitudes exist not only because of socialization and because they allow people to misplace hostilities, but also as _____

by-products of normal thinking processes.

Stereotypes often offer a beneficial ratio of information gained to effort expended. They represent ______

cognitive efficiency

We find is especially easy and efficient to rely on stereotypes when we are :(5)

Pressed for time



Emotionally aroused

Too young to appreciate diversity

___ people take more time and care more about getting racial classification right.


Outgroup homogeneity effect

perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members. "they are alike; we are diverse"

The greater our familiarity with a social group, the more _____

we see its diversity

The smaller and less powerful the group, the____ (2)

less we attend to them and the more we stereotype

Own-race bias

the tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own face

Own-age bias

people more accurately recognize people of their own age

explain own-race, own-age bias, and Outgroup homogeneity effect

When we see someone who is in our group, we pay less attention to that characteristic that makes them in our group and more to distinctive qualities

Stigma consciousness

person's expectation of being victimized by prejudice or discrimination

Seeing oneself as a victim of pervasive prejudice: effects (2)

lower well-being because always worried, but also buffers individual self-esteem

Those in a numerical minority, becoming more distinctive, also may be______

numerically overestimated by the majority

Illusory correlations

often form when two noticeable events occurs and others that are not noticed are not taken into account.

two ways we get illusory correlations

co-occurrences of an unusual act by someone in an atypical group can embed illusory correlations.

Our pre-existing stereotypes can also lead us to see correlations that aren't there

The more that people assume that human traits are fixed dispositions, ____(2)

the stronger are their stereotypes and the greater their acceptance of racial inequities.

Group-serving bias

explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group)

Linguistic intergroup bias

we attribute good acts to the disposition of our group and a single event of an outgroup. We attribute bad acts to isolated events in our group and dispositions of the outgroup

Just-world phenomenon

the tendency of people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get

Prejudgments guide our ___ and ____



Once we judge an item as belonging to a category such as a particular race or sex, our memory for it _____

later shifts toward the features we associate with that category


accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by thinking of them as "exceptions to the rule"


accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of a group - acknowledge as part of the overall group

Two types of effects of victimization:

1. Blaming oneself

2. Blaming external causes

Being in the minority and being self-conscious about it can_____

siphon off our mental and physical stamina

Stereotype threat

a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated, based on a negative stereotype. Unlike self-fulfilling prophecies that hammer one's reputation into one's self-concept, stereotype threat situations have immediate effects

How does stereotype threat undermine performance? (3)

1. Stress. fMRIs show that brain activity associated with math is impaired and emotional areas more active

2. Self-monitoring. Worrying about mistakes disrupts attention

3. Suppressing unwanted thoughts and emotions- the effort to regulate thinking takes energy and disrupts working memory

People often evaluate individuals more/less positively than the groups they compose.


Given general (base-rate) information about a group and trivial but vivid information about a particular group member, ____wins out

the vivid info

When we have little else to go on, we use our _____ and they _____

stereotypes and they affect our memory more.

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