Week 1

Outline principles of infection control in health and social care contexts
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Terms in this set (24)
- wet hands with water
- apply soap
- palm to palm
- back of each hand with opposite palm and fingers interlaced
- rub palm to palm with fingers interlaced
- back of fingers with opposing palms
- each thumb clasped in other hand
- tips of fingers in opposite palm in a circular motion
- rub each wrist with opposite hand
- rinse hands with water
- use elbow to turn off tap
Appreciate the variability of disability for different groups of disabled peopleconsider: - age and social history - how disability was acquired - challenges, adjustments, attitudes and perceptionsConsider person-centred treatment and how this might be adopted in practice- empathy - effective communication - active listening - facilitating responsesTo describe the key findings of sociological research examining the constituents of lay health beliefs- discover the rules and meanings that different social groups use to order their lives and make sense of their experience of health and illness - conceptual models used by individuals, communities or cultures to explain how to maintain health and to provide explanation for illnessTo explain the relationship between lay health beliefs and patient compliance with clinical treatmentfactors that influence patient compliance with clinical treatment: - demographic factors (age, gender) - patient knowledge - psychosocial factors - patient compliance - lay referral systemTo describe the key features of the 'help-seeking' behaviour model- accessibility to health facilities - quality of medical care - attitude of health workersDescribe the importance of both innate and adaptive immune systemsInnate: - physical barriers against infection - not specialised for specific pathogens Adaptive: - activates if innate immune system is unsuccessful - composed of highly specialised systemic cells and processes that eliminate or prevent pathogenic growth (inflammation, antibody production)Describe the differences between innate and adaptive immune systems naming the cells and molecules involved in eachinnate: - macrophages - neutrophils - eosinophils - basophils - mast cells - dendritic cells adaptive: - b lymphocytes - t lymphocytes - t helper cells - cytotoxic t cellsList and describe the role of innate protective factors acting as barriers to infection- neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells phagocytise pathogens - basophils and mast cells release chemicals that trigger inflammation - natural killer cells destroy cancerous or infected cells - eosinophins kill parasites - physical barriers: skin and mucusDescribe the function of T lymphocytes- develop from stem cells in bone marrow - help to protect body from infection - promote the activity of other immune cellsDescribe the function of B lymphocytes- produce antibodies - pathogens bind to pathogens or foreign bodies to neutralise themDefine phagocytosis and describe the function of phagocytic cells.phagocytosis: - when phagocytes ingest or engulf other cells or particles - phagocytic cells surround and kill microorganisms, ingest foreign material and remove dead cellsDescribe the characteristics of the main phagocytic cellsmonocytes and macrophages: - initiate and resolves inflammation - through phagocytosis, release inflammatory cytokines and activate acquired immune systemDescribe the importance of phagocytic cells in destroying pathogens.- phagocytes surround pathogens in blood and engulf them - attracted to pathogens and bind to them - surround pathogens and enzymes found inside cells and break down the pathogen - important for ingestion and elimination of pathogensUnderstand the importance of phagocytosis in the removal of dead cells- stop excessive and damaged cells from accumulating - protect the body - produce substances that attract other cells to the site