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production, storage, elimination of urine in which the kidney filters 125mL/ min of which only 1 mL is excreted as urine per minute. This system contains paired kidneys and ureters, and unpaired bladder and urethra.
this organ is enveloped by a thin capsule of connective tissue, with an outer cortex, inner medulla, 3 million nephrons, and a hilium
the upper part of the ureter expands to form...
the renal pelvis, three major calyces, several minor calyces
Pathway of blood
abdominal aorta->renal arter-> afferent arterioles->glomerulus->efferent arterioles->peritubular capillaries-> renal vein ->inferior vena cava
pathway of urine
bowman's capsule-> proximal convoluted tubule-> loop of henle-> distal convoluted tubule -> collecting tubules and ducts -> calyx
renal cortex consists of
mainly renal corpuscles, proximal convoluted tubules, and distal convoluted tubules
renal medulla consists of
10-18 medullary pyramids. The base sends medullary rays in the cortex while the apex is in contact with the minor calyx
functional and anatomical unit with part in the cortex and part in the medulla that consists of renal corpuscle (glomerulus)-> proximal convoluted tubule->loop of henle-> distal convoluted tubule -> collecting tubule and ducts
superficial layer of kidneys consisting primarily of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules with renal columns of Bertin and medullary rays
groups of straight tubules that extend from base of each renal pyramid from base of each renal pyramid
two layers of bowman's capusle
visceral (internal) and parietal (external) with urinary space in between
two portals (poles) of renal corpuscle
VASCULAR where afferent arterioles enter and efferent exit and URINARY where urine that was filtered from the capillaries (between the visceral and parietal layers of bowman's capsule) exit towards the proximal convoluted tubule
visceral epithelium (podocytes)
cell body and many primary processes -> secondary processes (pedicles which are in contact with capillary basal lamina) these cells CAN contract
glomerular basement membrane
contains TWO lamina lucidae and ONE lamina densa, it's the physical and electric barrier between blood in the capillary lumen and the urinary space in capsule, filtration occurs along hydrostatic pressure gradient, opposed oncotic pressure of plasma, and net filtration pressure at afferent end is about 15 mmHg
How does glomerular filtrate different from plasma?
there are NO PROTEINS. Glomerular filtrate crosses through fenestrations in the endothelial cells, through basal laminal and between the "feet" of podocytes to reach the urinary space
What's in between the two layers of bowman's capsule?
urinary space that is emptied into the proximal convoluted tubule
Glomerular capillary wall
contains fenestrated endothelial cells with no diaphragm and mesangial cells
are located in between capillaries, are contractile controlling capillary lumen, have angiotensin II receptors (-GFR), ANP receptors (vasodilation), and synthesize supportive matrix
proximal convoluted tubule
drains bowman's capsule, reabsorbs from filtrate ALL the glucose, amino acids, small proteins and 80% of the sodium chloride and water, Hydrogen goes, bicarb stays, secretes into filtrate organic wastes such as creatine and urea with numerous ATPase pumps for active transport
important materials that leaked into filtrate (urine) are taken up by PCT cells-> back to circulation via peritubular capillaries
waste material still in the efferent->peritubular capillaries-> actively secreted into the proximal convoluted tubules
renal tubular secretion
tubular secretion is the transfer of materials from peritubular capillaries to tubular lumen mainly by active transport. This is the major excretion method for drugs and other toxins
proximal convoluted tubule
parietal layer of the bowman's capsule becomes the cuboidal lining of this and is also surrounded by peritubular cappilaries (continuation of efferent afteriole)
lined by simple cuboidal epithelium with brush border similar to PCT.. becomes THIN limb with squamous epithelium
ascending limb of henle's loop
lined by cuboidal epithelial cells with few microvilli, impermeable to water-hypotonic urine, ends in distal convoluted tubule
distal convoluted tubule
shorter and wider than the proximal convoluted tubule lacking brush border, aldosterone present, reabsorbs sodium ions from filtrate, moves potassium, ammonium and hydrogen ions into fitrate, contains macula densa
macula densa cells
tall, narrow, closely packed with epithelial cells of distal convoluted tubule that monitor osmolarity and fluid volume in distal convoluted tubule and transmit this info to JG cells via gap junctions
modified smooth muscle cells that exhibit characteristics of protein-secreting cells that exhibit characteristics of protein-secreting cels, located primarily in the wall of the afferent arteriole, synthesize renin and store it in secretory granules
interstitial tissue between glomerular capillaries composed of mesangial cells of an amorphous extracellular matrix elaborated by these cells. These cells phagocytose large protein molecules and debris that may accumulate during filtration or in certain diseased states, cells can contract to decrease surface area available for filtration, basement membrane absent
not part of the nephron, has cuboidal epithelium, with ADH to reabsorb more water to concentrate urine, have segments in both the cortex and medulla, converge to form larger and larger collecting ducts then papillary ducts
Ducts of Bellini (papillary collecting ducts)
large collecting ducts formed from converging smaller ones, lined by simple epithelium composed of columnar cells with a single cilium, empty urine at area cribosa of medullary pyramid into a minor calyx
include minor and major calyces and renal pelvis located within each kidney, the ureter, urinary bladder and urethra located outside the kidneys, possesses three-layered wall composed of a mucosa of transitional epithelium lying on a lamina propria of loose connective tissue, a muscularis and an adventitia
located between the renal pelvis and the urinary bladder, lined with transitional epithelium, thick, two layered muscular layer, the distal one-third of this structure has an additional smooth muscle-> peristaltic waves throughout that propel urine to enter bladder in spurts
lined with transitional epithelium whose morphology differs in the relaxed (empty) and distended states, thin lamina propria of fibroelastic connective tissue, and a three-layered muscularis
epithelium of relaxed bladder
5-6 layers thick, rounded superficial cells that buldge into the lumen giving the lumen a scalloped contour, cells contain unique plaques in their plasma membrane and flattened elliptical vesicles in their cytoplasm
epithelium of distended bladder
only has 3-4 layers thick with squamous superficial cells when plaques align and new membrane is added from cytoplasmic vesicles, has a larger luminal surface area than relaxed bladder (reduced number of cell layers)
moves urine from bladder to outside, has a two-layered muscularis consisting of an inner longitudinal and outer circular layer of smooth muscle, surround at some point by an external sphincter of skeletal muscle which permits its voluntary closure
divided into prostatic, membranous, and spongy (cavernous) portions, lined by transitional epithelium in prostatic portion and by pseudostratified columnar or stratified epithelium in other two portions
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