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- a simple form of learning in which an organism learns to engage in behavior because it is reinforced
- a stimulus that gains reinforcement value through association with established reinforcers
- in operant and conditioning, a stimulus that indicates that reinforcement is available
- a schedule of reinforcement in which every correct response is reinforced
- one of several reinforcement schedules in which not every correct response is reinforced
Fixed - interval schedule
- a scheduling which a fixed amount of time must lapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is available
Variable - interval schedule
- a scheduling which a variable amount of time must lapse between the previous and subsequent times that reinforcement is available
Fixed - ratio schedule
- a scheduling which reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of correct responses
Variable - ratio schedule
- a scheduling which reinforcement is provided after a variable number of correct responses
- a procedure for teaching complex behaviors that first reinforces approximations of the target behavior
- the view that learning occurs when stimuli provides information about the likelihood of the occurrence of other stimuli
- the acquisition of knowledge and skills strew the observation of others (who are called models) rather than by direct experience
Through classical conditioning we learn to associate stimuli. What is the results.
Result - simple, usually passive, response made to one stimulus is then made in response to another
Is Classical conditioning the only lind of learning?
Classical conditioning is one kind of learning. Another kind of learning is operant conditioning
-learn to do things - or not do things - because of the consequences of their behavior
What does classical conditioning focus on?
Classical condition focuses on how organism form expectations about their environment where operant conditioning focuses on what they do about them.
What was Skinner's "Project Pigeon"?
Skinner's wartime effort was "Project Pigeon" - pigeons would pack at targets projected onto a screen. Once trained, the pigeons would be placed in a missile. Their pecking at similar targets displayed on the screen would correct the missiles flight path, resulting in a "hit" and a sacrifice pigeon.
Was the "Project Pigeon" successful?
Project Pigeon was scrapped - equipment was too bulky and Skinner's suggestions were not taken seriously
In operant conditioning what the organism learn s to do something because..
of the effects or consequences of the behavior
What is operant conditoning?
Operant behavior, behavior that operates on, or manipulates, the environment
Picking at a target, pressing her level, or skills required to playing tennis are examples of what type of conditioning?
Helping people combat depression, one psychiatrist might focus on their "feelings". What would Skinnerian focus on?
They would focus on the type of thing that "depressed people" do.
To study operant behavior, Skinner devised a cage. What is it called?
an animal cage (or "operant chamber") = the Skinner box
Why was the cage ideal?
The cage is ideal for laboratory experimentation because experimental conditions can be carefully introduced, removed, and their effects on laboratory animals observed.
TRUE OR FALSE - In operant conditioning, it matters little why or how the first "correct" result is made.
TRUE OR FALSE - People are visually guided into desired responses when learning new tasks?
FALSE - People can be verbally guided into desired responses when they are learning tasks such as spelling, adding numbers, or operating a machine; they need to be informed when they have made the correct response. Knowledge of results often is all the reinforcement people need to learn new skills
A reinforcer is any stimulus that increases the probability that responses preceding it will be repeated. What are examples of reinforcers?
Reinforcers include food pellets, water, the opportunity to meet, and the sound of a tone that has been previously associated with eating.
What do positive reinforcer increase?
Positive reinforcers increase the probability that a behavior will occur when they are applied
What do negative reinforcers increase?
Negative Reinforcers increase the probability that the behavior will occur when the reinforcers are removed.
TRUE OR FALSE - Delayed reinforcers are more effective that immediate reinforcers.
FALSE - Immediate reinforcers are more effective than delayed reinforcers
TRUE OR FALSE - Does short term consequences of behavior provide less of an incentive than long-term consequences?
FALSE - Short term consequences of behavior often PROVIDES MORE of an incentive than the long-term consequences
Why is it so difficult to quit smoking (from the stand point of reinforcement)?
It is difficult to quit smoking cigarettes because the reinforcement of nicotine is immediate and the health concerns of smoking more distant.
Why are positive reinforcers effective?
Primary reinforcers are effective because of the organism's BIOLOGICAL MAKEUP(food, water, warmth (positive reinforcers) and pain (negative reinforcer) all serve as primary reinforcers
Secondary reinforcers are son referred to as ..
conditioned reinforcers. Secondary reinforcers acquired their value for being associated with established reinforcers.
The extinction of learned responses results from what?
...the repeated performance of operant behavior without reinforcement.
Reinforcers maintain operant behavioral or strengthen habitual behavior in what type of conditioning?
Spontaneous recovery of learned responses occurs in what two types of conditioning?
operant condition as well as in classical conditioning.
Reinforcers are known by their effects. Rewards and punishments are known by what?
by how they feel.
Why did B. F. Skinner prefer the concept of reinforcement to that of the reward?
Skinner preferred the concept of reinforcement to that of the reward because reinforcement does not suggest trying to "get inside the head" of an organism to guess what it would find pleasant or unpleasant.
How is a list of reinforcers arrived at or complied?
A list of reinforcers are arrived at by observing what sort of stimuli increases the frequency of behavior
Fill in the blanks - Punishment suppress ___(1)_______ and may be in ______(2)_______.
(1) undesirable behavior
In what type of conditioning are some responses maintained by means of continuous reinforcement?
Partial reinforcement schedules can maintain what behavior for a great deal of time, even though it goes unreinforced.
TRUE OR FALSE - Responses that have been maintained by partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinction their responses that have been maintained by continual reinforcement.
The cognitive perspective suggests that organisms that experience partial reinforcement do not what?
do not expect reinforcement every time they engage in a response.
Four basic reinforcement schedules:
1. Fixed - interval reinforcement schedule
2. Variable - interval reinforcement schedule
3. Fixed - ratio reinforcement schedule
4. Variable - ratio reinforcement schedule
Resulting record shows a typical series of upward waves, or scallops. What are they called ?
Fixed - interval scallops
What is the difference between variable-interval schedule and variable ratio schedule?
With a variable - interval reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is more unpredictable; whereas a variable - ratio reinforcement schedule, the reinforcement is provided after a variable number of correct responses have been made.
What is fixed - interval schedule?
Fixed - interval schedule is a fixed amount of time must elapse before the correct response will result in a reinforcer.
TRUE OR FALSE - According to your book, can we learn simple behaviors by shaping?
FALSE - We learn complex behaviors by shaping.
What does a organism learn with a fixed-ratio schedule?
With a fixed-ratio schedule, it is as if the organism learns that it must make several responses before being reinforced. It then "gets them out of the way" as rapidly as possible.
As training progresses in Shaping, we come to expect what?
expect more before we are willing to provide reinforcement. We reinforce successive approximations of the goal.
SCENERIO - You are driving your car home and not recalling how you got there. It is like the entire trip may seem "lost". What is this an example of?
Shaping. Your responses may have become so habitual that you do not focus on them.
Give two example of who induces children to acquire so - called gender - appropriate behavior patterns through rewards and punishments.
Parents and peers. Parents praise children for sharing their toys and punish them for being too aggressive. Peers participate in socializing process by playing the children were generous and avoiding aggressive ones.
Biofeedback training (BFT) are based on principles of what type of conditioning?
BFT has enabled people and lower animals to do?
learn to control autonomic responses to attain reinforcement.
B F Skinner developed an educational method called what?
programmed learning that is based on operant conditioning.
What method assumes that any complex task involving conceptual learning as well as motor skills can be broken down into numbers of small steps?
TRUE OR FALSE - In programmed learning, errors are punished?
Program learning does not punish errors. Instead, correct responses are reinforced.
What two types of conditioning were originally conceived as relatively simple forms of learning?
Classical and operative conditionings
Conditionings appeal in that it can be said to
meet the behaviorist objective of explaining behavior in terms of observable events
Some psychiatrists have suggested that most complicated human behavior involve what?
...involves the summation of a series of instances of conditioning.
In the addition to concepts such as Association and reinforcement, what other concepts do cognitive psychologist use? .
Mental structures, schemas, templates, and information processing
FILL IN THE BLANKS - Cognitive psychologist see people as ___(1)___ for information, ___(2)___ evidence, and ___(3)___ decisions
TRUE OR FALSE - Cognitive factors is only limited to humans?
False - Cognitive factors are not necessarily limited to humans but we are the only species that can talk about them
TRUE OR FALSE - Many behaviorists argued that organisms acquire only responses for which they are enforced.
What did E.C. Tolman showed with his rats.
Tolman's rats have learned about the means by exploring them even when they weren't unrewarded by food.
FILL IN THE BLANK - The rats learn the fastest routes by exploring. This learning may remain __(1)___ until food motivated them to take the rapid routes.
1. hidden or latent
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