Medical Microbiology chapter 21,22,23,24,25

What is the first layer of skin?
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What the most abundant microbes typically found on dry and sebaceous skin types?Betaproteobacteria & propionibacteriaWhat the most abundant microbes typically found on moist skin types?Corynebacterium & staphylococcusWhat are the common types of fungus found on the skin?Viruses, fungi, & malassesziaWhat secretes tears to keep the moist in the eyeball?Lacrimal glandWhat are the two small openings inside the upper/lower eyelid called?Lacrimal punctuation/punctaWhat color exterior strong ass to the sac?Lacrimal ductsWhat holds tears aka the dacrocyst or tear sac in the eyeball?Lacrimal sacWhat duct allows tears to flow to the inter-nose?Nasolacrimal ductThe surface of the eyeball and inner eyelid are mucous membranes called what?ConjunctivaWhat is the inflammation of a conjunctiva (bottom of eye/ portal of entry)?Conjunctivitis- pink eye INFECTION OF THE EYEWhat is inflammation of the college called?BlespharitisWhat is inflammation of the cornea called?keratitisWhat is inflammation of both cornea and conjunctiva called?KeratoconjunctivitisWhat is inflammation of the lacrimal sac (blocked) called?DacryocystitisWhat is staphylococcal infection of the skin?Furuncles (boils) on skin and carbuncles (pus filled lesions, form furncles) deeper in skinWhat commonly found with staphylococcal infection of the skin?S. Aureus, S. Epi, & Strep (All G Neg) Virulence factors include hemolysins called staphylolysins, which are cytotoxic or many types of cells, produce coagulaseWhat is staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS)?Peeling of dead skin in young children/infantsIn SSSS, bacterial exotoxins first produce what?Erythema which is redness of the skinWhat is the causing formation of vesicles, pustules, & possibly bullae (large blisters,5mm) around the mouth/nose?Impetigo, causing when is S. PyogenesWhat are the two types of diagnoses for impetigo?1. Nonbullous- vesicles, pustules, & bullae become encrusted sores 2. Bullous- the bullae filled and ruptures, resulting in larger, draining, encrusted lesionsWhat is the infection caused by catheters, prostheses, & in dwelling medical devices acquired in the hospital setting?Nosocomial S. Epidermis infectionWhat is streptococcal infection of the skin?Gram pod, cocci, causing agent S. Pyogenes (through cuts / wounds)What are the two types of streptococcal infection of the skin?1. Cellulitis- painful, red rash (Can be suppurative, which can lead to a bullous form of erythema) 2. Erysipelas- raised rash, usually with clear bordersWhat is necrotizing fasciitis?flesh eating bacteria, happens when the thin layer between the skin and muscle becomes infectedWhat is pseudomonas infection of the skin?G neg, found in water, soil, and human skin *hot-tub rashes, itchy red rash*What is the causing agent of pseudomonas?P. Aeruginosa of wounds / burns * wounds infected with certain strains also produce a blue-green pus due to the pigments pyocyanin & pyoverdin, which are side erophores that help P aeru survive in low iron environments*What is otitis externa?swimmers ear, agent is pseudomonas spp,What is acne?inflammation of the sebaceous glands, white heads/black heads Comedones- lesions that are clogged hair folliclesWhat is anthrax?A zoonotic disease infecting humans, wildlife and livestock. Anthrax is derived from Greek anthrakos meaning coal.What is the causing agent for anthrax?Bacillus anthracis, gram pos, endospore forming Eschar- a black hole, tons of dead skinWhat is bacterial conjunctivitis?Pink eye, yellow, green or white discharge Causing agent- haemophilus influenzaeWhat are the two forms of neonatal conjunctivitis?Ophthalmia neonatorum or inclusion conjunctivitis- blindness in new norms from mothers with STD's Causing agent- moraxella catarrhalis, s. Pneumoniae, & S. AureusWhat is Trachoma and what causes it?Chronic keratoconjunctivitis caused by recurrent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Eye lashes turned inwards)What is keratitis?inflammation of the cornea, contact users, causing agent staph epi or pseudomonas aeru.... BlindnessWhat is papillomas (warts) (viral infection)?human papillomavirus (HPV), direct contactWhat is oral herpes (viral infection)?simplex virus (HSV) Agents: 1. hsv1- cold sores 2. hsv2- sexual transmitted/ genital herpesWhat is Roseola (viral infection)?aka exanthem subitum (sudden rash), caused by (AGENTS) HHV-6 & HHV-7What is Fifth Disease?aka erythemia infection-sum, agent, parvovirus B19, rash, respiratory system problemsWhat is viral conjunctivitis?pink eye, tends to produce a discharge that is more watery than the thick discharge associated w. bacterial conjunctivitisWhat is cutaneous mycoses?superficial fungal infections of the epidermis, hair or nailswhat is subcutaneous mycoses?deeper infections, beneath the skinWhat is systemic mycoses?spread throughout the bodyWhat is Tineas (ringworm)?Dermatophytes, a group of cutaneous mycoses, fungal molds require keratinWhat are 3 agents for Tineas?1. Trichophyton 2. Epidermophyton 3. MicrosporumWhat are 3 examples Tineas?1. Tinea pedis - athlete's foot 2. Tinea Cruris- Jock Itch 3. Tinea corporis- BodyWhat is Cutaneous Aspergillosis (viral)?Mold from different species 1. Primary- begins in skin 2. Secondary- beings in respiratory *Eschar (black hole) w/ Respiratory*What is candidiasis of the skin & nails (mycoses of the skin)?1. yeast infection (Nails) 2. Cutaneous candidiasis (Skin)What is the causing agent of candidiasis of the skin & nails?Candida spp. *Cutaneous candidiasis (Skin)- responsible for intertrigo; a rash that occurs in the fold of the skin*What is sporotrichosis (mycoses of the skin)?AKA "Rose gardener's disease/thumb" caused by sporothrix schekii, a fungus that lives in soil and on plants such as hay, spaghnum moss, and roses *small ulcer on skin*What is Acanthamoeba infection of the eye (protozoan and helminthic)?A free-living cyst enters the body by water/contact lenses causing inflammation of the cornea.... this is called Acanthamoeba keratitisWhat is the causing agent for Acanthamoeba?Acanthamoeba or sometimes P. Aeruginosa *Can be Mild but can lead to damage to the corneal which causes blindness*What is Loiasis (protozoan and helminthic)?Aka, African eye worm transmitted by deerfly vector -is a nematode that can cause loiasis, a disease endemic to the west & central AfricaWhat is the causing agent for Loiasis?Loiasis - Individual susceptibility to developing loiasis after infection by the Loaloa wormWhat are Aerosols?Produced by sneezing, coughing, or even just speaking, are an important mechanism for respiratory pathogen transmission.What are the 10 parts of the upper respiratory system?-Primary Opening: -The respiratory system can be conceptually divided into upper and lower regions at the point of the (1) epiglottis, the structure that seals off the lower respiratory system from the (2)pharynx during swallowing. -The (3)nasopharynx carries air inhaled through the nose. The middle ear is connected to the nasopharynx through the (4)eustachian tube. The middle ear is separated from the outer ear by the (5)tympanic membrane, or ear drum. And finally, the lacrimal glands drain to the nasal cavity through the (6) nasolacrimal ducts (tear ducts). -Secondary opening: -The pharynx can be divided into three regions: the nasopharynx, the (7)oropharynx, and the (8)laryngopharynx. Air inhaled through the mouth does not pass through the nasopharynx; it proceeds first through the oropharynx and then through the laryngopharynx. The (9) palatine tonsils, which consist of lymphoid tissue, are located within the oropharynx. The laryngopharynx, the last portion of the pharynx, connects to the (10) larynx, which contains the vocal foldwhat are the 2 parts of the lower respiratory system?1. The trachea, or windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube extending from the larynx that provides an unobstructed path for air to reach the lungs. 2. The terminal bronchioles formed in this tree-like network end in cul-de-sacs called the alveoli. These structures are surrounded by capillary networks and are the site of gas exchange in the respiratory system. Human lungs contain on the order of 400,000,000 alveoli.What are the 2 defenses of the Respiratory system?1. The goblet cells within the respiratory epithelium secrete a layer of sticky mucus. 2. The respiratory tract contains ciliated epithelial cells. The beating cilia dislodge and propel the mucus, and any trapped microbes, upward to the epiglottis, where they will be swallowed. Elimination of microbes in this manner is referred to as the mucociliary escalator effect and is an important mechanism that prevents inhaled microorganisms from migrating further into the lower respiratory tract.What is the normal Microbiota of the Respiratory system?1. The upper respiratory tract contains an abundant and diverse microbiota. The nasal passages and sinuses are primarily colonized by members of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. The most common bacteria identified include Staphylococcus epidermidis 2. The lower respiratory tract, species of Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Veillonella are the most commonWhat is Rhinitis?is an inflammation of the nasal cavities, often characteristic of the common cold. Rhinitis may also be associated with hay fever allergies or other irritants.What is sinusitis?Inflammation of the sinuseswhat is otitis?Inflammation of the ear... Otitis media is an inflammation of the middle ear.what is pharyngitis?A variety of microbes, commonly known as a sore throat.What is laryngitis?An inflammation of the larynx.... The resulting inflammation may interfere with vocal cord function, causing voice loss.What is tonsillitis?When tonsils are inflamed, Chronic cases of tonsillitis may be treated surgically with tonsillectomy.What is epiglottitis?Rarely the epiglottis can be infectedWhat is bronchitis?In the lower respiratory system, the inflammation of the bronchial tubesWhat is pneumonia?in which the alveoli in the lungs are infected and become inflamed. Pus and edema accumulate and fill the alveoli with fluids (called consolidations). This reduces the lungs' ability to exchange gases and often results in a productive cough expelling phlegm and mucus. Cases of pneumonia can range from mild to life-threatening and remain an important cause of mortality in the very young and very old.What is streptococcal infections?A common upper respiratory infection, streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat) is caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. This gram-positive bacterium appears as chains of cocci. -direct contact or droplet transmission through coughing and sneezing.What 2 things can streptococcal infections lead to?Some strains of group A streptococci produce erythrogenic toxin. This exotoxin is encoded by a temperate bacteriophage (bacterial virus) and is an example of phage conversion. The toxin attacks the plasma membranes of capillary endothelial cells and leads to scarlet fever (or scarlatina), a disseminated fine red rash on the skin, and strawberry tongue, a red rash on the tongue.What is acute rheumatic fever?heart tissue which is thought to initiate the autoimmune attack.What is acute glomerulonephritis?also results from an immune response to streptococcal antigens following pharyngitis and cutaneous infections. Acute glomerulonephritis develops within 6-10 days after pharyngitis but can take up to 21 days after a cutaneous infectionWhat is acute otitis media (AOM)?earache"/ infection of middle ear.... The condition is most common between ages 3 months and 3 years. In the United States, AOM is the second-leading cause of visits to pediatricians by children younger than age 5 years, and it is the leading indication for antibiotic prescription *Steptococcus*What are symptoms of acute otitis media (AOM)?AOM is characterized by the formation and accumulation of pus in the middle ear. Unable to drain, the pus builds up, resulting in moderate to severe bulging of the tympanic membrane and otalgia (ear pain).What is Bacteria Rhinosinusitis?The microbial community of the nasopharynx is extremely diverse and harbors many opportunistic pathogens, so it is perhaps not surprising that infections leading to rhinitis and sinusitis have many possible causesWhat is diphtheria?The causative agent of diphtheria, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, in the droplets and aerosols, - An of grayish exudate consisting of dead host cells, pus, red blood cells, fibrin, and infectious bacteria results in the formation of a pseudomembrane. The pseudomembrane can cover mucous membranes of the nasal cavity, tonsils, pharynx, and larynx. accumulation This is a classic sign of diphtheria.What is bacterial pneumonia?-infections of the lungs that lead to inflammation and accumulation of fluids and white blood cells in the alveoli. -caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other organisms: Streptococcus pneumoniaeWhat is pneumococcal pneumonia?Acute lung infection that results in inflammatory cytokines and causes alveolar edema.... The most common cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniaWhat is Haemophilus influenzae?Encapsulated strains of Haemophilus influenzae are known for causing meningitis, but nonencapsulated strains are important causes of pneumoniaWhat is Mycoplasma pneumoniae?(Walking Pneumonia) Primary atypical pneumonia is caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniaeWhat is tuberculosis?Mycobacterium tuberculosi -inhalation of respiratory droplets or aerosols from an infected person. The infectious dose of M. tuberculosis is only 10 cells.What are the 4 symptoms of tuberculosis?1. Eventually, the lesions in the alveoli become walled off, forming small round lesions called tubercles. 2. Tubercles may eventually rupture, and bacterial cells can invade pulmonary capillaries; from there, bacteria can spread through the bloodstream to other organs, a condition known as military tuberculosis 3. Eventually, most lesions heal to form calcified Ghon complexes. These structures are visible on chest radiographs and are a useful diagnostic feature. 4. Release of these organisms at a later time can produce reactivation tuberculosis (or secondary TB).What is pertussis?whooping cough -Bordetella pertussis, a gram-negative coccobacillus. -highly communicable through droplet transmissionWhat are the 3 stages of pertussis?1. The initial infection, termed the catarrhal stage, is relatively mild and unremarkable. The signs and symptoms may include nasal congestion, a runny nose, sneezing, and a low-grade fever. This, however, is the stage in which B. pertussis is most infectious. 2. In the paroxysmal stage, mucus accumulation leads to uncontrollable coughing spasms that can last for several minutes and frequently induce vomiting. The paroxysmal stage can last for several weeks. 3. A long convalescence stage follows the paroxysmal stage, during which time patients experience a chronic cough that can last for up to several months. In fact, the disease is sometimes called the 100-day cough.what is Legionnaires' disease.also known as legionellosis... is caused by an aerobic gram-negative bacillus, Legionella pneumophila. -caused by human-made reservoirs such as air-conditioning cooling towers, humidifiers, misting systems, and fountains -effect: those suffering from chronic heart or lung disease or other conditions that weaken the immune system.What is Q Fever disease?rickettsia, Coxiella burnetiid. The primary reservoirs for this bacterium are domesticated livestock such as cattle, sheep, and goats. -bacterium may be transmitted by ticks or through exposure to the urine, feces, milk, or amniotic fluid of an infected animalWhat is the common cold?- include rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and adenoviruses -transmitted through direct contact and droplet transmission.What is infulenza?is a common viral disease of the lower respiratory system caused by an orthomyxovirusWhat is the infectious agent?orthomyxovirusWhat are the 3 types of influenza?1. Type A-Influenza A virus can infect a variety of animals, including pigs, horses, pigs, and even whales and dolphins. When an influenza virus gains a new hemagglutinin or neuraminidase type, it is able to evade the host's immune response and be successfully transmitted, often leading to an epidemic. Antigenic shift/drift. 2. Type B-a. virus is less virulent and is sometimes associated with epidemic outbreaks. No significant animal reservoirs. Antigenic drift. 3. Type C-a. virus generally produces the mildest disease symptoms and is rarely connected with epidemics. No significant animal reservoirs. Antigenic drift.How is influenza transmitted?transmitted by direct contact and inhalation of aerosols.What is the most virulent group?is the influenza A viruses, which cause seasonal pandemics of influenza each year. Influenza A virus can infect a variety of animals, including pigs, horses, pigs, and even whales and dolphins. Influenza B virus is less virulent and is sometimes associated with epidemic outbreaks. Influenza C virus generally produces the mildest disease symptoms and is rarely connected with epidemics. Neither influenza B virus nor influenza C virus has significant animal reservoirsWhat is viral pneumonia?Several viruses can lead to pneumonia in children and the elderly. The most common sources of viral pneumonia are adenoviruses, influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, and respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV). -transmitted by direct contact and inhalation of aerosols; mild flu-like symptomsWhat is SARS?-Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) -acute respiratory infections caused by coronaviruses -transmitted by direct contact and inhalation of aerosols - Signs and symptoms of SARS include high fever, headache, body aches, and cough, and most patients will develop pneumonia *Bats & Civet cats*What is MERS?-Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) -acute respiratory infections caused by coronaviruses -transmitted by direct contact and inhalation of aerosols -will be asymptomatic or have mild cold-like symptoms, most will develop a high fever, aches, cough and a severe respiratory infection that can progress to pneumonia. *Camels*What is Measles?-as rubeola, which is a major cause of childhood mortality worldwide -direct contact with infectious secretions or inhalation of airborne droplets -The measles rash initially forms on the face and later spreads to the extremities -What is another diagnostic sign of measles?Another diagnostic sign of measles infections is Koplik's spots, white spots that form on the inner lining of inflamed cheek tissueWhat is Rubella?-German Measles, Rubella, person-to-person -a relatively mild viral disease that produces a rash somewhat like that caused by the measles, even though the two diseases are unrelatedWhat is chicken pox?-the varicella-zoster virus -by direct contact or inhalation of material from the skin lesions -The initial infection of the respiratory tract leads to viremia and eventually produces fever and chills. A pustular rash then develops on the face, progresses to the trunk, and then the extremities, although most form on the trunk. Eventually, the lesions burst and form a crusty scab -a. This results in the production of the painful lesions in a condition known as shingles. (adults)What is histoplasmosis?-Histoplasma capsulatum, is a dimorphic fungus -acquired by inhaling microconidial spores in the air - Signs and symptoms of pulmonary histoplasmosis include fever, headache, and weakness with some chest discomfort.What is the first part of the Urinary Tract?1. Two bean shaped kidneys that are metabolically very active. At rest they receive about 25% of the cardiac output. *composed of millions of filtration units called nephrons* 2. Each nephron is in intimate contact with blood through a specialized capillary bed called the glomerulus (plural glomeruli). Fluids, electrolytes, and molecules from the blood pass from the glomerulus into the nephron, creating the filtrate that becomes urine. Urine is a fluid containing water, ions, and small soluble compounds.What is the second part of the Urinary Tract?1. Two ureters that receive urine from the kidneys and conduct it to the urinary bladder. Urine movement involves a combination of gravity and peristalsis. 2. The urinary bladder receives and stores urine prior to elimination from the body. The urinary bladder possesses rugae and is lined with transitional epithelium to allows the urinary bladder to stretch.What is the last part of the Urinary Tract?1. Urethra drains urine from urinary bladder and transports the urine to the outside. In females, it only drains urine. In males, it drains urine and semen. At the base of the bladder there is an internal and external urethral sphincter that regulates urination.What is the male reproductive system?is located in close proximity to the urinary system, and the urethra is part of both systems. The testes are responsible for the production of sperm. The epididymis is a coiled tube that collects sperm from the testes and passes it on to the vas deferens. The epididymis is also the site of sperm maturation after they leave the testes. The seminal vesicles and prostate are accessory glands that produce fluid that supports sperm. During ejaculation, the vas deferens releases this mixture of fluid and sperm, called semen, into the urethra, which extends to the end of the penis.What is the female reproductive system?is located near the urinary system. The external genitalia (vulva) in females open to the vagina, a muscular passageway that connects to the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (the organ where a fertilized egg will implant and develop). The cervix is a common site of infection, especially for viruses that may lead to cervical cancer. The uterus leads to the fallopian tubes and eventually to the ovaries. Ovaries are the site of ova (egg) production, as well as the site of estrogen and progesterone production that are involved in maturation and maintenance of reproductive organs, preparation of the uterus for pregnancy, and regulation of the menstrual cycle.What is the Normal Microbiota of the Urogenital System?-the kidneys are sterile; Therefore, it is primarily the flushing action that keeps the ureters and bladder free of microbes. *For women who lack sufficient lactobacilli in their vagina, lactic acid production comes primarily from other species of bacteria such as Leptotrichia spp*What are the first 4 General Signs and Symptoms of Urogenital Infections?1. Pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis - infection or inflammation of the kidney. 2. Epididymitis - infection or inflammation of the epididymis. 3. Orchitis - infection or inflammation of the testis. usually caused by a bacterial infection spreading from the epididymis, but it can also be a complication of mumps, a viral disease. The symptoms are similar to those of epididymitis, and it is not uncommon for them both to occur together, in which case the condition is called epididymo-orchitis. 1. Prostatitis - infection or inflammation of the prostate. Can be the result of bacterial infection. The signs and symptoms of prostatitis include fever, chills, and pain in the bladder, testicles, and penis. Patients may also experience burning during urination, difficulty emptying the bladder, and painful ejaculation.What are the last 4 General Signs and Symptoms of Urogenital Infections?1. Urethritis - inflammation of the urethra. 2. Cystitis - inflammation of the bladder. 3. Vaginitis often develops as a result of an overgrowth of bacteria or fungi that normally reside in the vaginal microbiota, although it can also result from infections by transient pathogens. a. vaginosis bacterial infections b. yeast infections fungal infections 4. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) s an infection of the female reproductive organs including the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The two most common pathogens are the sexually transmitted bacterial pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Inflammation of the fallopian tubes, called salpingitis, is the most serious form of PID. Symptoms of PID can vary between women and include pain in the lower abdomen, vaginal discharge, fever, chills, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and painful urination.What are the 4 General Causes and Modes of Transmission of Urogenital Infections?1. Hormonal changes, particularly shifts in estrogen in women due to pregnancy or menopause, can increase susceptibility to urogenital infections. 2. Another common cause of urogenital infections in females is fecal contamination that occurs because of the close proximity of the anus and the urethra. 3. In men, urinary tract infections are more commonly associated with other conditions, such as an enlarged prostate, kidney stones, or placement of a urinary catheter 4. Infections that are transmitted between individuals through sexual contact are called sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).What is Cystitis disease? (Bacterial Infections of the Urinary System)1. often caused by a bacterial infection of the bladder, but it can also occur as a reaction to certain treatments or irritants such as radiation treatment, hygiene sprays, or spermicides. Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli (most commonly) -dysuria (urination accompanied by burning, discomfort, or pain) -pyuria (pus in the urine) -hematuria (blood in the urine), and bladder pain.What is the first type of kidney infection?1. Pyelonephritis- Can be caused by bacteria that have spread from other parts of the urinary tract (such as the bladder). Can develop from bacteria that travel through the bloodstream to the kidney. When the infection spreads from the lower urinary tract, the causative agents are typically fecal bacteria such as E. coli. *Common signs and symptoms include back pain (due to the location of the kidneys), fever, and nausea or vomiting. Gross hematuria (visible blood in the urine) occurs in 30-40% of women but is rare in men.*What is the second type of kidney infection?2. Glomerulonephritis -occurs when the glomeruli of the nephrons are damaged from inflammation both acute or chronic. *Streptococcus pyogenes throat and skin infections (infected heart tissue*What is the third type of kidney infection?3. Leptospirosis- Leptospira are generally harmless spirochetes that are commonly found in the soil. However, some pathogenic species can cause an infection called leptospirosis in the kidneys and other organs. *Leptospira spp: dogs, horses, cattle, pigs, and rodents, and are excreted in their urine*What is Nongonococcal Urethritis (NGU)?(Bacterial Infections of the Urinary System)refers to inflammation of the urethra that is unrelated to N. gonorrhoeae. -Chlamydia trachomatis; sexual contact -women; asymptomatic -men; discharge & dysuriaWhat is Bacterial Vaginitis and Vaginosis? (Bacterial Infections of the Reproductive System)-Inflammation of the vagina is called vaginitis, often caused by a bacterial infection. It is also possible to have an imbalance in the normal vaginal microbiota without inflammation called bacterial vaginosis (BV). -major causative agent of BV is Gardnerella vaginalis; Gardnerella vaginalis also produces a cytotoxin called vaginolysin that lyses vaginal epithelial cells and red blood cells. -may be asymptomatic or may cause mild symptoms such as a thin, white-to-yellow, homogeneous vaginal discharge, burning, odor, and itchingWhat is gonorrhea? (Bacterial Infections of the Reproductive System)- A.K.A "the clap" -Neisseria gonorrhoeae, often called gonococcus or GC, which have fimbriae that allow the cells to attach to epithelial cells. -ages of 15 & 24What is chlamydia? (Bacterial Infections of the Reproductive System)-Chlamydia trachomatis -STI -asymptomatic, chlamydia is a major cause of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) and may also cause epididymitis and orchitis in men. In women, chlamydia infections can cause urethritis, salpingitis, and PID.What is Syphilis? (Bacterial Infections of the Reproductive System)-caused by the gram-negative spirochete Treponema pallidum -spread through direct physical (generally sexual) contact - 1. Primary syphilis appears as a single lesion on the cervix, penis, or anus within 10 to 90 days of transmission 2. The secondary stage generally develops once the primary chancre has healed or begun to heal. 3.After the secondary phase, syphilis can enter a latent phase, in which there are no symptoms but microbial levels remain high *may occur 10 to 20 years after infection*What is congenital syphilis? (Bacterial Infections of the Reproductive System)is passed by mother to fetus when untreated primary or secondary syphilis is present. In many cases, infection may lead to miscarriage or stillbirthWhat is Chancroid? (Bacterial Infections of the Reproductive System)-gram-negative rod Haemophilus ducreyi. - direct physical (generally sexual) contact -is characterized by soft chancres on the genitals or other areas associated with sexual contact, such as the mouth and anusWhat is Genital Herpes (HSV-2)?-is incurable and the second most prevalent STI at 24.1 million infections in the US. -herpes simplex virus, an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that is classified into two distinct types. -direct physical (generally sexual) contact -In men, the herpes lesions typically develop on the penis and may be accompanied by a watery discharge. -In women, the vesicles develop most commonly on the vulva, but may also develop on the vagina or cervixWhat is Neonatal Herpes?-generally transmitted from the mother to the neonate during childbirth, when the child is exposed to pathogens in the birth canal. Infections can occur regardless of whether lesions are present in the birth canalWhat is Human Papillomas (HPV) human?-is incurable and the most common STI in the country, with an estimated prevalence of 79.1 million infections in 2008. -Warts of all types are caused by a variety of strains of human papillomavirus (HPV). Condylomata acuminata, more commonly called genital warts or venereal warts, are an extremely prevalent STI caused by certain strains of HPV. - direct physical (generally sexual) contact -While some types of HPV cause genital warts, HPV infection is often asymptomatic and self-limiting. Condylomata are irregular, soft, pink growths that are found on external genitalia or the anus.What is Fungal Infections of the Reproductive System?-Candida is a genus of fungi capable of existing in a yeast form or as a multicellular fungus. Candida spp. are commonly found in the normal, healthy microbiota of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, and female urogenital tract -may also be transmitted between individuals. Sexual contact is a common mode of transmission, although candidiasis is not considered an STI. - When a yeast infection develops, inflammation occurs along with symptoms of pruritus (itching), a thick white or yellow discharge, and odor.What is trichomoniasis? (Protozoal Infections of the Urogenital System)- aka "trich" is the most common nonviral STI and the only major protozoan species causes infections in the urogenital system -a flagellated protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis -direct physical (generally sexual) contact - Both men and women can develop trichomoniasis. Men are generally asymptomatic, and although women are more likely to develop symptoms, they are often asymptomatic as wellWhat are the parts of the digestive system?The digestive system consists of a muscular tube called the gastrointestinal tract (or GI tract) and a variety of accessory organs.what do the parts of the digestive system do?1. Gastrointestinal tract - the muscular tube through which food passes. The GI tract, also known as the alimentary canal, begins with the mouth and continues through the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine which opens to the exterior through the anus. 2. Accessory organs - along the length of the GI tract, several accessory structures produce secretions containing water, enzymes, buffers and other components that assist in preparing organic and inorganic nutrients for absorption. The primary accessory organs include: salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. *contains normal microbiota, including archaea, bacteria, fungi, protists, and even viruses.*What is the mouth?- lined with non-keratinized stratified squamous; produces the boluswhat are the parts of the anterior & lateral borders of the oral cavity?1. Labia - or lips, possess no sweat glands or sebaceous glands. Distinguished by the red margin and the orbicularis oris muscle. A superior and inferior labial frenulum attaches the lips to the gums. 2. Cheeks - formed by the buccinator muscles. 3. Vestibule - area bounded by the lips and cheeks externally and internally by the gingivae (gums) and teeth.What are the parts of the superior boundary of the oral cavity (or roof)?1. Hard palate - composed of the palatine process of the maxilla and the palatine bones. 2. Soft palate - the soft palate is composed of muscle tissue rather than bone.what are the parts of the posterior boundary of the oral cavity?1. Uvula - composed of connective and reticular tissue; helps to prevent food from entering the oropharynx prematurely and houses WBCs. 2. Palatine tonsils - lie on either side of the oral cavity in the archways called the fauces. 3. Root of the tongue - the fixed portion of the tongue that enters into the oropharynx. Differentiated from the body of the tongue by the v-shaped circumvallate papillae. Possesses the lingual tonsils.what are the parts of the inferior boundary (or floor) of the oral cavity?1. Body of the tongue - anterior, mobile portion of the tongue. 2. Geniohyoid and mylohyoid muscles - support the body of the tongue.What is the tongue?- composed of skeletal muscle to manipulate food, helps form words, and serves as a sensory organ for gustation. Anchored in the oral cavity by the lingual frenulumWhat are the salivary glands?exocrine glands that produce and secrete saliva via ducts connected to the oral cavity. - 3 types : Parotid glands, Sublingual glands, Submandibular glandsWhat are the different parts of the tooth?1. Crown - exposed part of the tooth that projects into the oral cavity. Covered by enamel over a highly mineralized (bone-like) material called dentin and a soft pulp located within the pulp cavity. 2. Neck - narrow area that serves as the boundary between the crown and the root 3. Root - below the gingiva (or gums) and sits into the sockets of the jawbone, called the alveoli, to form numerous gomphosis joints. Covered by cementum and anchored by the periodontal ligament. Holds the pulp cavity filled with pulp and extends down into the root canal and apical foramen.The Jejunum and Ileum (middle portion of small intestines) do what?The lower portion of the ileum contains Peyer's patches and drains into the large intestine at the ileocecal valve. Peyer's patches detect pathogens in the intestines via microfold (M) cells, which transfer antigens from the lumen of the intestine to the lymphocytes on Peyer's patches to induce an immune response. *E. coli found in the intestine can also break down food and help the body produce vitamin K, which is important for blood coagulation*What are the first 4 General Signs and Symptoms of Oral and GI Disease?1. periodontal disease - a condition characterized by chronic inflammation and erosion of the gums. 2. ulcer - an open sore in the mouth or GI tract. 3. gastritis - an inflammation of the stomach lining that results in swelling 4. enteritis - inflammation of the intestinal mucosaWhat are the last 4 General Signs and Symptoms of Oral and GI Disease?1. gastroenteritis - the inflammation involves both the stomach lining and the intestinal lining 2. hepatitis - inflammation of the liver is called. 3. colitis - inflammation of the colon, commonly occurs in cases of food intoxication. Because an inflamed colon does not reabsorb water as effectively as it normally does, stools become watery, causing diarrhea. 4. dysentery - damage to the epithelial cells of the colon can also cause bleeding and excess mucus to appear in watery stools.What is dental caries?are microbial lesions that cause damage to the teeth. Over time, the lesion can grow through the outer enamel layer to infect the underlying dentin or even the innermost pulpWhat is the infectious agent for dental caries?- Streptococcus mutans. -When sucrose, a disaccharide sugar from food, is broken down by bacteria in the mouth, glucose and fructose are produced. The glucose is used to make dextran, which is part of the extracellular matrix of the biofilm. Fructose is fermented, producing organic acids such as lactic acid. These acids dissolve the minerals of the tooth, including enamel, even though it is the hardest material in the bodyWhat is periodontal disease (gingivitis)?-is the result of infections that lead to inflammation and tissue damage in the structures surrounding the teeth. -Over time, chronic gingivitis can develop into the more serious condition of periodontitis. When this happens, the gums recede and expose parts of the tooth below the crown -Trench Mouth aka acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis develop when certain bacteria, such as Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium species, and Treponema vicentii, are involved and periodontal disease progressesWhat is Herpetic Gingivostomatitis (oral infection) ?- infections by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) -ulcers of the mucous membranes inside the mouth.what is oral thrush (oral infection)?Candida albicans. When Candida infection develops in the oral cavity, it is called oral thrush. Oral thrush is most common in infants because they do not yet have well developed immune systems and have not acquired the robust normal microbiota that keeps Candida in check in adults -common in immunodeficient patients and is a common infection in patients with AIDS *white patches and pseudomembranes in the mouth and can be associated with bleeding.*What is Mumps (oral infection)?-Mumps virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets or through contact with contaminated saliva, making it quite contagious so that it can lead easily to epidemics. -It causes fever, muscle pain, headache, pain with chewing, loss of appetite, fatigue, and weakness. There is swelling of the salivary glands and associated pain.What is a food-borne disease?can arise from either infection or intoxication. In both cases, bacterial toxins are typically responsible for producing disease signs and symptoms. The distinction lies in where the toxins are produced.What is staphylococcus food poisoning?-Staphylococcus aureus grows in food and may produce 21 different enterotoxins and enterotoxin-like toxins. -ingestion of raw or undercooked and cooked foods including meat and dairy products. Can be found on hands and can be transmitted to prepared foods through poor hygiene, including poor handwashing and the use of contaminated food preparation surfaces, such as cutting boards. Greatest risks are from food left at a temperature below 60 °C (140 °F), which allows the bacteria to grow. -nausea, diarrhea, cramping, and vomiting within one to six hoursWhat is Shigellosis? (Bacillary Dysentery)rod-shaped, gram-negative bacterium Shigella. S. dysenteriae - spread from hand to mouth or through contaminated food and water. Most commonly, it is transmitted through the fecal-oral route. -Stomach cramps, fever, and watery diarrhea that may also contain pus, mucus, and/or blood often developWhat is salmonellosis?-caused by the rod-shaped, gram-negative bacterium Salmonella. S. enterica -caused by ingestion of contaminated food, handling of eggshells, or exposure to certain animals. -fever, nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, headache, and diarrhea.What is Typhoid fever?-Certain serotypes of S. enterica, primarily serotype Typhi (S. typhi) but also Paratyphi, cause a more severe type of salmonellosis called typhoid fever -Individuals consuming food or water contaminated with these feces can become infected - untreated mortality rate of 10%, causes high fever, body aches, headache, nausea, lethargy, and a possible rash. Mary=asymptomicWhat is E. coli infection?-Escherichia coli -spread from person to person, they are often acquired through contaminated food or waterwhat are the 4 types of E. coli infections?1.Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), also known as traveler's diarrhea, causes diarrheal illness and is common in less developed countries. (mexico) 2.Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) is very similar to shigellosis, including its pathogenesis of intracellular invasion into intestinal epithelial tissue. 3. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) can cause a potentially fatal diarrhea, especially in infants and those in less developed countries. 4.Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) which are the most dangerous strains capable of causing epidemics. In particular, the strain O157:H7 has been responsible for several recent outbreaks.What is the circulatory system?-includes a fluid, a series of conducting tubes that distribute the fluid throughout the body, and a pump that keeps the fluid in motion.What are the parts of the circulatory system?1. Blood - the fluid of the cardiovascular system; distributes materials including nutrients, wastes, hormones, respiratory gases; also assists in temperature regulation and defense against disease. 2. Blood Vessels - the conducting tubes that distribute the blood; three primary types of blood vessels are in the human body. - Arteries - carry blood away from the heart to the capillaries, typically red on models because they generally carry oxygenated blood. -Capillaries - smallest, most abundant type of blood vessel; permits diffusion between the bloodstream and interstitial fluids. c. Veins - return blood from capillaries to the heart; typically, blue on models because they generally carry deoxygenated blood.What is the last part of the circulatory system?-Heart - the pump that keeps the fluid in motion - Right atrium (Blue), Left Atrium (Red), Left Ventricle (Red), Right Ventricle (Blue)What is the lymphatic system?- includes the vessels, cells, tissues, and organs responsible for defending the body against both environmental hazards (such as various pathogens) and internal threats (such as cancer cells).What are lymph vessels in the lymphatic system?- carry lymph from the peripheral tissues to the venous system. The lymphatic network begins with lymphatic capillaries, which merge to form progressively larger vessels as they make their way towards circulation.What are the two types of lymphoid tissues in the lymphatic system?1. The primary lymphoid tissue includes bone marrow and the thymus. Bone marrow contains the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that differentiate and mature into the various types of blood cells and lymphocytes. 2. The secondary lymphoid tissues include the spleen, lymph nodes, and several areas of diffuse lymphoid tissues underlying epithelial membranes. *SPLEEN; an encapsulated structure, filters blood and captures pathogens and antigens that pass into it* *Lymph nodes are bean-shaped organs situated throughout the body* ^the lymph exits the lymph node through the efferent lymphatic vessels^What are the first 6 Infections of the Circulatory System?1. Bacteremia - bacteria in the blood 2. Septicemia - bacteria are reproducing in the blood as they spread 3. Viremia - the presence of viruses in the blood 4. Toxemia - microbial toxins spread through the circulatory system 5. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) - microbes and microbial toxins in the blood can trigger an inflammatory response so severe that the inflammation damages host tissues and organs more than the infection itself. It can lead to the life-threatening condition known as sepsis 6. Sepsis - IMMUNE SYSTEM!! characterized by the production of excess cytokines that leads to classic signs of inflammation such as fever, vasodilation, and edema.What are the last 6 Infections of the Circulatory System?1. Endocarditis - Inflammation of the endocardium, the inner lining of the heart resulting in damage to the heart valves severe enough to require surgical replacement. 2. Myocarditis - inflammation of the heart's muscle tissue. 3. Pericarditis - inflammation of the pericardium, the sac surrounding the heart. 4. Vasculitis - Inflammation of blood vessels. Although somewhat rare, vasculitis can cause blood vessels to become damaged and rupture. 5. Petechiae - small red or purple spots appearing on the skin caused by ruptured blood vessels. 6. Ischemia - reduced blood flow to the surrounding tissues due to damaged tissue or blood vessels.Infections of the lymphatic system do what?-the lymphatic system does not have a normal microbiota, and the large numbers of immune cells typically eliminate transient microbes before they can establish an infection. Only microbes with an array of virulence factors are able to overcome these defenses and establish infection in the lymphatic system -localized infection begins to spread, the lymphatic system is often the first place the invading microbes can be detectedWhat are the 2 types of Infections of the lymphatic system?1. Lymphangitis - inflammation of lymphatic vessels producing visible red streaks under the skin. 2. Lymphadenitis aka Bubo - A swollen lymph node caused by inflammationWhat is septic shock?- blood pressure can fall below the level necessary to maintain proper kidney and respiratory functions. - The loss of blood pressure and occurrence of blood clots can result in multiple organ failure and death. -the most common infection associated with sepsis is bacterial pneumonia, accounting for about half of all casesWhat is Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) and Streptococcal Toxic Shock-like Syndrome (STSS) <- more chronic?Toxemia associated with infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus can cause staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS).What is puerperal sepsis?puerperal fever, or childbed fever, is a nosocomial infection associated with the period of puerperium—the time following childbirth during which the mother's reproductive system returns to a nonpregnant state *Streptococcus pyogenes*What is Infectious Arthritis septic arthritis?aka infectious arthritis can be either an acute or a chronic condition. *S. aureus* *Neisseria gonorrhoeae* -Chronic infectious arthritis is responsible for 5% of all infectious arthritis cases and is more likely to occur in patients with other illnesses or conditions.What is Ostemyelitis?an inflammation of bone tissues most commonly caused by infection *S. aureus.*What is rheumatic fever?Infections with S. pyogenes have a variety of manifestations and complications generally called sequelae. As mentioned, the bacterium can cause suppurative infections like puerperal fever. However, this microbe can also cause nonsuppurative sequelae in the form of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) which can lead to rheumatic heart disease, thus impacting the circulatory system.What is Bacterial endocarditis and pericarditis?-The endocardium tissue can become infected by a variety of bacteria, including gram-positive cocci such as Staphylococcus aureus -The resulting inflammation is called endocarditis, which can be described as either acute or subacute. Staphylcoccus spp. and Streptococcus spp. can also infect and cause inflammation in the tissues surrounding the heart, a condition called acute pericarditis.What is Gas Gangrene?-Traumatic injuries or certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, can cause damage to blood vessels that interrupts blood flow to a region of the body (ischemia). When blood flow is interrupted, tissues begin to die, creating an anaerobic environment in which anaerobic bacteria can thrive. Endospores of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens.... can readily germinate in ischemic tissues and colonize the anaerobic tissues. -The gas associated with gas gangrene is produced by Clostridium's fermentation of butyric acid, which produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide that are released as the bacteria multiply, forming pockets of gas in tissueswhat is tularemia?aka rabbit fever- Infection with the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis causes tularemia (or rabbit fever), a zoonotic infection in humansWhat is Brucellosis?-Several species cause zoonotic infections in animals and humans, four of which have significant human pathogenicity: B. abortus from cattle and buffalo -also known as undulant fever, "Mediterranean fever," or "Malta fever."What is Cat-scratch disease?-Bartonella henselae. -immunocompromised patients may develop bacillary angiomatosis (BA), characterized by the proliferation of blood vessels, resulting in the formation of tumor-like masses in the skin and internal organs; or bacillary peliosis (BP), characterized by multiple cyst-like, blood-filled cavities in the liver and spleen.What is Rat-Bite fever?- caused by two different gram-negative bacteria: Streptobacillus moniliformis, which is more common in North America, and Spirillum minor, which is more common in Asia.What is the plague?Yersinia pestis. causes acute febrile disease in animals, usually rodents or other small mammals, and humans.What are the 3 types of plague?1. Bubonic plague: (MOST COMMON TYPE) Y. pestis is transferred by the bite of infected fleas 2.Septicemic plague: occurs when Y. pestis is directly introduced into the bloodstream through a cut or wound and circulates through the body. 3. Pneumonic plague: occurs when Y. pestis causes an infection of the lungsWhat is Anaplasmosis human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA)?obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum. HGA is endemic primarily in the central and northeastern US and in countries in Europe and Asia *ZOONOTIC TICKBORNE DISEASE*What is Ehrlichiosis?Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME) is a zoonotic tickborne disease caused by the BSL-2, obligate intracellular pathogen Ehrlichia chaffeensis. *ZOONOTIC TICKBORNE DISEASE*What is epidemic typhus?-caused by Rickettsia prowazekii -transmitted by body lice,What is Murine (endemic) typhus?-Rickettsia typhi -transmitted by the bite of the rat fleaWhat is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)?-Rickettsia rickettsii -transmitted by the bite of a hard-bodied tick such as the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis), Rocky Mountain wood tick (D. andersoni), or brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus).