How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Ch. 13-14 Middle Ages

STUDY
PLAY
Middle Ages
Period in European history from the fall of Rome until the Renaissance (500-1500)
Germanic Peoples
tribes from Scandinavia who settled in Western Europe
Pope Gregory I
Pope (c.590) who used the revenues of the Roman Church to raise armies, repair roads, and send missionaries to the French and English
Sippe
a group within a Germanic trive which claimed a common ancestor
Comitatus
a war band who fought for a Germanic king
Comites or Counts
companions of a Germanic king who fought for him and shared his food
oath
Swearing personal loyalty to a political or military leader
villeins
"tillers" who worked the land in return for protection. Some were free, some not
swearing worth
it defined the social, political and military position of a person. The more important the person, the higher this was
weirgild
"man Gold" Payment to a man's family and lord if accidentally killed or injured
ordeal
form of trial by water or fire in which God decided guilt
stirrup
essential peice of equipment that made the knight on horseback effective
Franks
Germanic tribe that settled in Gaul (france) and Switzerland
Battle of Chalons (Catalunian Fields)
Franks, Burgundians, and the Romans defeated the Huns (451)
Clovis
Frankish king who ruled North-Central France by 486
Clotild
wife of Clovis who urged him to become a Christian
Bishop Remigius
he baptised Clovis and his warriors in 496
Merovingian Kings
royal family of Clovis, weak rulers
Mayor of the Palace
royal official who ruled for the weak Merovingian kings
Charles Martel "The Hammer"
Mayor of the Palace who united the Franks (714-718)
Battle of Tours (Politiers) October 10, 732
Charles Martel defeated a Muslim invasion of France
Pepin the Short
Mayor of the Palace who was elected king of the Franks by an assemble of nobles
Stephen II
pope who annointed Pepin King of the Franks (754)
Childeric III
Last Merovingian king, sent to a monastery by Pepin the Short
Donation of Pepin
forged document which claimed to give all of Italy to the Pope to rule
Charlemagne
Charles the Great, united Frankland and worked to Christianize Europe
progress
a yearly tour by Charlemagne of all his possessions
marks
border provinces given to loyal counts who had extra troops and responsibilities
counties
300 local divisions of Frankland, ruled by the counts
misi dominici
"messengers of the Lord", they carried Charlemagne's orders to the counts and the stewards
Saxons
Barbarian tribe in north Germany with which Charlemagne fought a 30 year guerilla war to froce their conversion to Christianity
Alcuin of York
British scholar who set up Charlemagne's palace school
Carolingian Miniscule Script
form of writing developed by Carolingian scholars
Pope Leo III
crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the West on December 25, 800
Aachen
capital of Charlemagne's empire
Monasteries
religious communities where men gave up their possessions and followed rules to serve God
Convents
religious communities where women gave up their possessions and followed rules to serve God
St. Benedict
Monk who wrote the rules for the monasteries
St. Scholastica
Sister of St. Benedict, she became the first nun of the Benedictine order
Treaty of Verdun (843)
divided the lands ruled by Charlemagne among the three of his grandsons
Charles the Bald
Grandson of Charlemagne who inherited the West Saxon kingdom
Louis the German
grandson of Charlemagne who inherited the East Saxon kingdom
lothar
grandson of Charlemagne who inherited the Middle Kingdom and became Holy Roman Emperor
Saracens
Muslim raiders and invaders who struck Europe through Italy and Spain (c. 600-1060)
Magyars
horse riding nomads who swept through eastern and western Europe until 950s
Otto I
German king who stopped the Magyar invasions of Europe at the Battle of Lechfeld in August. 955
vikings
Norsemen (northmen) who sailed from Scandinavia and raided western Europe (775-1050s)
Halberd
broad war ax introduced to western Europe by the Vikings
Hauberk
Chain mail armour
longship
a viking clinger-built ship
the siege of Europe
period from 800-1050 during which Europe was attacked and invaded by the Saracens, Magyars, and Vikings
Feudalism
system of governing and landholding that emerged in Europe between 850 and 950
lord
local landowner granted land from a superior
fief
the land granted to a lord
vassal
a mounted horseman who provided fighting service for a lord
knights
mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lord's land in exchange for fiefs
manorialism
the economic system which provided food and protection for people in the early medieval period
serf
people who were bound to the land on which they lived and farmed
demesne
land owned by the lord and worked by the serfs. the produce went to feed the lord, his family, and his vassals
common fields
lands worked by the serfs. The produce was used to pay the taxes and feed the serfs
crofts
gardens that belonged to the peasants
manor
the farm or estate on which the lord, his vassals, and his serfs lived
common pasture
common area for grazing animals
tithe
churhc tax of 1/10 of the income paid by the serfs and free peasants
chivalry
complex code of conduct bu which knights were expected to obey
page
a noble boy of 7-12 years old, learning to become a knight
squire
a noble boy 13-20 years old, learning to become a knight by serving a knight
dubbing
a ceremony at which a young man was made a knight
tournaments
mock battles in which knights fought each other individually or in groups to win large ransoms from defeated knights
sieges
type of warfare in which a castle was surrounded and attacked until it surrendered
mangonel
device that used twisted rope to hurl objects at a castle
trebuchet
device that used a counter-weight to hurl objects toward a castle
song of roland
a medieval epic poem about a group of French knights serving Charlemagne
troubadours
travelling poet-musicians who composed verses and songs about courtly behavior and love
Eleanor of Aquitaine
duchess who was queen of France and later queen of England. Her court was famed for its "courtly love" poetry
Gelasius I
Pope (492-496), he established that the 2 powers of the church and state should be equal, but independent in their own spheres of operation
clergy
a body of officials who perform religious services
regular clergy
Church officials who obey a rule (code): monks or nuns
secular clergy
Church officials who work with lay members: archbishops, bishops, and priests
sacraments
one of 7 ceremonies in which God's grace is transmitted to the people
canon law
the body of laws governing the religious practices of a Christian church
Otto (I) the Great
King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor. He strengthened the powers of the bishops and abbots in Germany in order to weaken the power of the nobles and helped strengthen the power of the papacy
Holy Roman Empire
an empire established in Europe in the 10th century, consisting mainly of lands in what is now Germany and Italy
lay investiture
the appointment if religious officials by kings or nobles
Gregory VII
Pope (1073-1085) who banned lay investiture in 1075
Henry IV
Holy Roman Emperor who supported lay investiture and was twice excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII
Canossa
Italian town were Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV did penance in 1077, standing three days bare-headed in the snow, in order to reverse his excommunication by Pope Gregory VII
Concordat of Worms
compromise in 1122 by which the Church alone could appoint a bishop, but the emperor could veto the appointment
Frederick (I) "Barbararossa"
Holy Roman Emperor (1155-1190). Dominated the German princes and 6 times invaded Italy to control the northern Italian cities
Battle of Leganto
Vistory by an Italian army of mostly foot soldiers over the mounted knights of Frederick I in 1177
Frederick II
Holy Roman Emperor (1220-1250), tried to revive the empire of Charlemagne and was frequently at war with the papal states. Was twice excommunicated by the Pope.
Pluralism
problem in the medieval Church caused by officials having more than one office
simony
problem in the Church caused by positions being sold in the Church
lay investiture
problem in the medieval Church caused by kings and bishops appointing bishops
Pope Leo IX
Pope (1049-1054) who started the reform movement in the medieval Church
Curia
the clerks and advisers to the pope who served as the bureaucracy of the Church
tithe
tax of 10% of the yearly income of every Christian family, paid to the Church
friars
Churchmen who took vows but lived in the world by begging and preaching
Dominicans
a Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic in the early 13th century in France, famed as scholars and teachers
Franciscans
Members of Catholic religious orders that follow a body of regulations known as "The Rule of St. Francis", famed as missionaries and preachers
Romanesque
early medieval architecture style characterized by round arches and barrel vaults
Gothic
High and Late medieval architecture style characterized by pointed arches, flying buttresses, and ribbed vaults
Tympanum
the "story panel" above the door of a medieval church, often about the Last Judgement
Alexius Comnenus I
Byzantine emperor from 1081-1118 whose request for help against the Muslims atarted the Crusades
Urban II
Pope (1088-1099) who started the Crusades by his preaching to the Council of Clermont in 1095
Crusade
one of several "holy wars" to gain control of the "Holy Land" (1095-1291)
Frist Crusade (1096-1099)
Successfully captured Jerusalem and created the 5 "crusader states"
Second Crusade (1147-1149)
organized to recapture Edessa or to capture Damascus
Third Crusade (1189-1191)
called to recapture Jerusalem
Saladin
sultan in Egypt, he recaptured Jerusalem in 1187
Richard the Lion-hearted
King of England who led the Third Crusade and made a treaty with Saladin
Fourth Crusade (1202-1204)
Crusaders who attacked and looted Constantinople instead of invading Egypt
Children's Crusade
possibly fictitious attempts by the children of France and Germany to conquer Jerusalem
Reconquista
800 year long (710-1492) conflict of drive the Muslims out of Spain
Inquisition
Church court held to suppress heresy, especially active in Spain
three-field system
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe in which farmland was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was planted with a winter crop, a spring crop, and one field left unplanted.
fallow
the field left unplanted in the three-field system
guild
an organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members
merchant guilds
merchants banded together to control the number of goods being traded, to keep prices up and for security
craft guilds
artisans and craftspeople who banded together to set standards for quality, set wages and working conditions, and to create a system of ecucating new members
apprentice
a young person who was learning a trade or occupation
journeyman
a trained craftsman or merchant who worked with other owners to pretect their trade
master
a shop or business owner who worked with other owners to pretect their trade
commercial revolution
the expansion of trade and businessthat transformed European economies and changed life
fairs
great international markets held in some medieval towns during certain seasons of the year
bills of exchange
established exchange rates between different coinage systems
letters of credit
written aggreements between merchants for the deposit and delivery of large amounts of money
usury
sin of lending money to another Christian for interest
burr
teh wall that surrounded a town
burghers
those who lived within the protection of the wall
suburbs
area below or outside the protection of the town wall
charter
a letter of permission from a king given to a town allowing it to govern itself and to make its own laws
liberal arts
education for a "free man" usually a churchman
trivium
"the three roads": grammar, rhetoric, and logic
quadtrivium
"the four raods", arithmetic, geomoetry, astronaomy, and music
university
a group of scholars: teachers and students
bachelors
students who had completed the trivium
masters
students who had completed teh quadtrivium and had passed a disputation
scholasticism
method of formal debate using reason ,logic, and faith
plainsong
one-voiced music such as Gregorian Chants
troubadours or minnesingers
travelling composers and musicians
vernacular
the everyday language of a people in a country or region
fabliaux
fables or "beast tales" in which animals act as humans
Chansons ed Geste
romantic or heroic epics called "Songs of Deeds"
courtly love
stories and acts of idealized romantic conduct which allowed noble women to have some control over their lives
morality plays
plays about how life should be lived
miracle plays
plays about the lives of saints
mystery plays
plays about events from the Bible
Dante Aligheri
Italian poet (1265-1321) who wrote The Divine Comedy which describes his journy through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise
Geoffrey Chaucer
English author, poet, philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier, and diplomat who wrote The Canterbury Tales
Christine de Pisan
An Italian poet who spent much of her life in France. She wrote The book of the Cities of Ladies in which she uses famous women from history and literature as building blocks for not only the walls and houses of the city, but also as building blocks for her defense of female rights.
Thomas Aquinas
Italian scholar who blended Greek philosophy and Christian doctrine by suggesting that rational thinking and the study of nature, like revelation, were valid ways to understand truths pertaining to God
Summa Theologicae
Great book of Thomas Aquinas that combined Greek thought with Christian thought
Ibn Sina or Avicenna
Persian Muslim scholar whose book The Cure interpreted Aristotle's philosophy for the scholastics
feudal state
similar people with similar customs and beliefs, protected by local lords, who were responsible to a king
dynastic state
different people with difference customs and languages held together by a king or family of kings using common laws and central government
Angles, Saxons, and Jutes
three Germanic tribes that migrated to Britain in the late 600s
shire
the original term for what is usually known as a county
theigns
a nobleman in Anglo-Saxon England
earl
Anglo-Saxon term for a large landowner, from the Scandinavian word for "cheif"
witan
common name for the Witenagemot (council of wise men) which met to advise the king in Anglo-Saxon England
Alfred the Great
Anglo-Saxon king (871-899) who defeated the Viking invaders, unified the kingsom and began development of laws that applied to all
Shire Reeve
a sherriff of officer of the king in a shire
canute the great
Danish king who conquered England in 1016 and united the Anglo-Saxons and the Vikings
Edward the Confessor
Anglo-Saxon king (1042-1066) who favored the Normans, but died without and heir
Harold King of Norway
great warroir and a cousin of Edward the Confessor
William of Normandy
cousin of Edward the Confessor who became the first Norman king of England
Battle of Stramford Bridge
battle in northern England where Harold Godwinson defeated and killed Harold of Norway
Battle of Hastings
battle in southern England in which William of Normandy defeated and killed Harold Godwinson
Salisbury Oath
In August 1086, William I summoned 'landowning men of any occount' to attend at Salisbury and swear allegiance to him and to be faithful against all other men
Curia Regis
King's council of William I
Doomesday Book
the record of the great survey of England completed in 1086
Henry I
King of England (1100-1135), he justices which represented the Curia Regisand the Exchequer to receive taxes from sheriffs
Henry II
King of England (1154-1189), he created the traveling justices on regular circuits who developed the "common law"
Eleanor of Aquitaine
by her marriage to Henry II he inherited a claim to a large terrritory in western France
common law
a unified body of English law based on precedent on previous court decisions
thomas becket
archbishop of Canterbury who became a martyr by challenging Henry's attempt to force the Church to obey common law
John I
King of England (1199-1216), his misrule and excommunication caused the barons to rebel in 1215
Magna Carta
The Great Charter (1215) , by which John agreed that the king was under the law, no taxation without the consent of the nobles and the burgesses and that there could be no imprisonment without trials
Henry III
King of England (1216-1272) by the Provisions of Oxford he agreed that the Curia Regis must meet three times each year and that the king must have the consent of the council to act
Edward I
King of England (1272-1307), he called the Model Parliament to meet in 1295 to raise taxes for wars in Wales, Scotland, and France
House of Lords
house of parliament that represented the nobles and bishops
house of commons
house of parliament that represented the knights and burgesses
louis the sluggard
the last Carolingian king of France
Hugh Capet
First Capetian king of France (987-996), elected because the nobles thought him too weak to interfere with their local power
Capetian dynasty
fourteen kings who ruled France for 350 years and spread their power out from Paris
Philip II "Augustus"
King of France (1180-1223), he weakened the kings of England by seizing Normands and tripling the lands under his direct control
baliffs and seneschals
Royal officials sent to every district in the kingdom ro preside over the king's courts and to collect the king's taxes
Louis IX
King of France (1226-1270), he created a French appeals court and sent provosts into French towns to make the bourgeoisie obey his ordinances
Philip IV
King of France (1285-1314), to win support in his dispute with the Pope he called the first meeting of the Estates General in 1302
third estate
the french bourgeoisie (middle class)
limited monarchy
the philosophy that the king was not free to do whatever he wished and must obey the law
absolute monarchy
the philosophy that the king was free to do whatever he wished because he was above the law
Celestine V
pietro da Morrone, the Hermit Pope who resigned as pope after just 5 months on office (1294)
Boniface VIII
Benedetto Caetani, called the "last medieval pope" (1294-1303), he opposed all attempts by kings to tax the church
unam Sanctum
papal bull (letter) which was the ultimate statement of the superiority of papal authority over kings and emperors
William of Nogaret
councilor of Philip IV of France, who attempted to capture Pope Boniface VIII
Clement V
pope who in 1309 moved the papal headquarters to Avignon in southeastern France
Babylonian captivity
the period (1309-1378) during which the papacy was in Avignon, France and not Rome
Gregory XI
pope who returned to Rome in 1378
Urban IV
An Italian monk and expert in church law who was elected Pope but quarrelled with the French cardinals
Clement VII
French cardinal who was elected Pope by the French cardinals and resided in Avignon
The Second Great Schism
Period (1378-1418) during which there were poes in Avignon, Rome, and Pisa
Council of Pisa
met in 1409 but failed in its attempt to solve the Second Great Schism
Council of Constance
met from 1414-1418, it condemned Jan Hus and elected Martin V to be pope
Yersinia pestis
scientific name for the bacteria that caused the bubonic plague
xenopsylla cheopis
the common flea which charried the plague from rats to humans
buboes
egg-shaped swellings of the lymph glands, a symptom of the plague
dance macabre
a painting which shows death leading various classes of people in a dance, to remind people of the inevitability of death and to advise them strongly to be prepared all times for death
philip of Valois
elected king by the French nobles, became philip VI, the first Valois king
Edward III
king of England who also claimed to be king of France
Battle of Sluys
a naval battle in 1340 which opened the coast of France to invasion by England and was one of the opening conflicts of the Hundred Years' War
Battle of Crecy
Second major battle in the Hundred Years war (1346), English longbowmen defeated the chraging French knights
Calais
French port city seized by the English and held throughout the Hundred Years War
flayers
roaming bands of mercenary soldiers that looted and destroyed much of western France during the Hundred Years War
Black Prince
Son of Edward III of England, he led the French armies during the first years of the Hundred Years War
Battle of Potiers
Third major battle of the Hundred Years War (1356) during which King John II and many French knights were captured and held for ransom in England
The Jacquerie
a peasant revolt in France during the summer of 1358 which was violently suppressed
Charles V
King of France (1364-1380), he renewed the Hundred Years War and worked to make France stronger
Wat Tyler
Along with the priest John Ball he led the Peasant Revolt in England in 1381
Richard II
King of England (1367-1400), he deafeated the Peasant revolt of 1381 but failed to rule successfully as king
Charles VI
King of France (1368-1422), known both as Charles the Well-loved and later as Charles the Mad. His army was defeated by Henry V
Burgundy and Orleans
the 2 factions in French politics which weakened France's ability to defend itself suring much of the Hundred Years War
Henry V
King of England (1413-1422), he invaded France in 1415 and later married a French princess
Battle of Agincourt
battle fought on October 25,1415, durign which the small English army defeated that of Charles VI of France
Treaty of Troyes
treaty between Charles VI and Henry V (1420) by which the English king would ingerit France
Joan of Arc
peasant girl born in Domremy, France who led the French in their defeat of the English at the city of Orleans (1429)
Charles VII
The Dauphin who was crowned king of France (1429-1461) after the French victories of Joan of Arc
Lancaster and York
the 2 warring branches of teh English royal family during the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485)
Richard III
He was the last king from the House of York, and was defeated at the Battle of Bosworth which ended the Wars of teh Roses (1485)
Henry Tudor
a Lancastrian prince, he defeated Richard III, married Elizabeth and York and ruled England as Henry VII (1485-1509)