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Concentration of solutes OUTSIDE of a cell is HIGHER than the concentration of solutes inside (cell shrinks)
Concentration of solutes INSIDE the cell is HIGHER than the concentration of solutes outside. (cell explodes)
The concentration of solutes inside and outside of the cell is the SAME. (equilibrium / stable)
HIGH to LOW concentration, with the concentration gradient, no ATP (energy) needed
LOW to HIGH concentration, against the concentration gradient, requires ATP (energy)
Functions of ATP
Energy for movement of muscle cells, energy for movement of cilia and flagella, active transport, and the breakdown of large molecules
Double layer of proteins (phospholipids) that controls what goes in and out of cell; selectively permeable
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