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Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane


Movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration


Concentration of solutes OUTSIDE of a cell is HIGHER than the concentration of solutes inside (cell shrinks)


Concentration of solutes INSIDE the cell is HIGHER than the concentration of solutes outside. (cell explodes)


The concentration of solutes inside and outside of the cell is the SAME. (equilibrium / stable)

Passive transport

HIGH to LOW concentration, with the concentration gradient, no ATP (energy) needed

Active transport

LOW to HIGH concentration, against the concentration gradient, requires ATP (energy)


Water loving, like the phosphate head in a phospholipid


Water fearing, like the lipid tail in a phospholipid


Movement of materials out of the cell - exit (active transport)


Movement of material into the cell - enter (active transport)


Adenosine Triphosphate, 1adenine and 3 phosphates


Adenosine Diphosphate, formed when ATP loses an end phosphate group

Functions of ATP

Energy for movement of muscle cells, energy for movement of cilia and flagella, active transport, and the breakdown of large molecules

Semipermeable membrane

Allows only certain molecules to pass through it

Facilitated diffusion

The use of carrier proteins for diffusion or protein channels (coin machine)


The process where molecules, food, and other substances are moved across the membrane

Cell membrane

Double layer of proteins (phospholipids) that controls what goes in and out of cell; selectively permeable


Inside cell


Outside cell


Stable internal enviornment

concentration gradient

difference in concentration of a substance on two sides of a membrane


substance being dissolved


A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell.


cell eating solid particles


cell drinking particles dissolved in water

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