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274 terms

Psychology Exam 3

Chapters 9-12
STUDY
PLAY
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
the use of specified procedures to evaluate the abilities, behaviors, and personal qualities of people. Often referred to as the measurement of individual differences because the majority of assessments specifies how an individual is different from or similar to other people on a given dimension.
eugenics
movement which advocated improving the human species by applying evolutionary theory to encouraging biologically superior people to interbreed while discouraging biologically inferior people from having offspring.
quantifiable differences
difference degrees in intelligence. In other words, numerical values could be assigned to distinguish among different people's levels of intelligence.
bell-shaped curve (normal distribution)
On this curve, most people's scores cluster in the middle, and fewer are found toward the two extremes of genius and mental deficiency.
correlations
the precise extent to which two sets of test scores were related could be determined by a statistical procedures.
formal assessment
the systematic procedures and measurement instruments used by trained professionals to assess an individual's functioning, aptitudes, abilities, or mental states. The assessment instrument should be reliable, valid, and standardized.
reliability
the extent to which an assessment instrument can be trusted to give consistent scores. This is measured by the degree to which a test correlates with itself (administered at different times or using different items.)
test-retest reliability
a measure of the correlation between the scores of the same people on the same test given on two different equations. A perfectly reliable test will yield a correlation coefficient of +1.00.
parallel forms
different versions of a test used to assess test reliability; the change of forms reduces effects of direct practice, memory, or the desire of an individual to appear consistent on the same items.
internal consistency
a measure of reliability; the degree to which a test yields similar scores across its different parts, such as odd versus even items. For example, we can compare a person's score on the odd-numbered items of a test with the score on the even-numbered items.
split-half reliability
a measure of the correlation between test takers' performance on different halves (such as odd and even-numbered items) of a test.
coding scheme
allows people to make appropriate distinctions. This is one reason that quite a bit of training is required before individuals can carry out accurate psychological assessment.
validity
the degree to which it measures what an assessor intends to measure. Should measure the trait and predict performance in situations where intelligence is important. This is measured by the degree to which the test correlates with something external to it (another test, a behavioral criterion, or judges' ratings).
content validity
the extent to which a test adequately measures the full range of the domain of interest. Necessary to sample broadly in order to capture everything of interest.
criterion validity (or predictive validity)
the degree to which test scores indicate a result on a specific measure that is consistent with some other criterion, or 'standard', of the characteristic being assessed. For example, if a test is designed to predict success in college, then college grades would be an appropriate criterion. If the test scores correlate highly with college grades, then the test has this.
construct validity
the degree to which a test adequately measures an underlying 'construct' - a theory about an abstract quality, what causes them, how they affect behavior, and how they relate to other variables. For many personal qualities of interest to psychologists, no ideal criterion exists - no single behavior or objective measure of performance can indicate how anxious, depressed, or aggressive a person is overall. Thus psychologists formulate these theories, or constructs.
norms
standard based on measurement of a large group of people; used for comparing the scores of an individual with those of others within a well-defined group. You would check the test ___ to see what the usual range of scores is and what the average is for students of your age and sex. That would provide you with a context for interpreting a certain score.
normative population
these group norms are most useful for interpreting individual scores when the comparison group shares important qualities with the individuals tested, such as age, social class, culture, and experience.
standardization
a set of uniform procedures for treating each participant in a test, interview, or experiment, or for recording data. A test needs same times, instruction detail, question permission, and motivation levels across all participants testing.
intelligence
the global capacity to profit from experience and to go beyond given information about an environment. "a very general mental capacity that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly, and learn from experience."
mental age
In Binet and Simon's measure of intelligence, the age at which a child is performing intellectually, expressed in terms of the average age at which normal children achieve a particular score.
chronological age
the number of months or years since an individual's birth; distinct from 'mental age'. For instance, when child's score equaled the average score of a group of 5-year-olds, the child was said to have mental age of 5, regardless of his or her number of years since birth.
IQ (intelligence quotient)
an index derived from standardized tests of intelligence; originally obtained by dividing an individual's mental age by chronological age and then multiplying by 100; now directly computed as an __ test score. A score of 100 is considered average. It is both a social and biological construct.
verbal comprehension scale
part of WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale); Similarities - in what ways are airplanes and submarines alike? Vocabulary - what does 'emulate' mean?
perceptual reasoning scale
part of WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale); Block Design - test taker uses patterned blocks to reproduce designs provided by the examiner. Picture Completion - test taker examines a picture and says what is missing (for example, a horse without a mane)
working memory scale
part of WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale); Digit Span - repeat the following numbers: 3 2 7 5 9. Arithmetic - if you paid $8.50 for a movie ticket and $2.75 for popcorn, how much change would you have left from a $20 bill.
processing speed scale
part of WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale); Symbol Search - the test taker tries to determine whether one of two abstract symbols appears on a longer list of symbols. Cancellation - the test taker looks at visual displays and carries out the examiner's instructions.
Wehsler Adult Intelligence Scale
test developed by David Wehsler which gives an overall IQ score, as well as separate estimates of verbal and nonverbal IQ. These tests provide comparable subtest scores that allow researchers to track the development over time of more specific intellectual abilities.
intellectual disability
condition in which individuals have IQ scores of 70 to 75 or below and also demonstrate limitations in the ability to bring adaptive skills to bear on life tasks. Diagnosed if an individual's limited in adaptive behavior such as: conceptual, social, and practical intelligence.
down syndrome
a condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup.
PKU (phenylketonuria)
a genetic disorder in which the body cannot metabolize phenylalanine.
learning disorder
a disorder defined by a large discrepancy between individuals' measured IQ and their actual performance. Factors that can lead to poor performance: low motivation, mediocre teaching, or physical problems.
gifted
individuals are labeled as such if they have an IQ of 130 or above. Joseph Renzulli argued in favor of a "three-ring" conception of giftedness that characterizes it along the dimensions of ability, creativity, and task commitment.
psychometrics
the field of psychology that specializes in mental testing. Multiple facets including: personality assessment, intelligence evaluation, and aptitude measurement. These theories, based around testing, examine the statistical relationships between different measures of ability, and then make the inferences about the nature of human intelligence on the basis of those relationships.
factor analysis
a frequently-used technique in psychometric testing; is a statistical procedure that detects a smaller number of dimensions, clusters, or factors within a larger set of independent variables. The goal of this analysis is to identify the basic psychological dimensions of the concept being investigated.
"g" (general intelligence)
according to Spearman, the factor of general intelligence underlying all intelligent performance. Each individual domain also has associated with it specific skills that Spearman called "s". For example, a person's performance on tests of vocabulary or arithmetic depends both on his or her general intelligence and on domain-specific abilities.
crystallized intelligence
the facet of intelligence involving the knowledge a person has already acquired and the ability to access that knowledge; measures by vocabulary, arithmetic, and general information tests. This allows you to cope well with your life's recurring, concrete challenges.
fluid intelligence
the aspect of intelligence that involves the ability to see complex relationships and solve problems; it is measured by tests of block designs and spatial visualization in which the background information needed to solve a problem is included or readily apparent. This helps you attack novel, abstract problems.
analytical intelligence
part of Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence; provides the basic information processing skills that apply to life's many familiar tasks. This type of intelligence is defined by the components, or mental processes, than underlie thinking and problem solving. Three components are identified: knowledge acquisition (for learning new facts), performance components (for problem-solving strategies and techniques), and metacognitive components (for selecting strategies and monitoring progress towards success).
creative intelligence
part of Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence; captures people's ability to deal with novel problems, "involves skills used to create, invent, discover, imagine, suppose, or hypothesize."
practical intelligence
part of Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence; reflected in the management of day-to-day affairs. Involves your ability to adapt to new and different contexts, select appropriate contexts, and effectively shape your environment to suit your needs, is bound to particular contexts.
West vs non-Western society
Gardner theory - value of intelligence across human societies. Western society values logical mathematical and linguistic intelligence, whereas non-Western societies often value other types of intelligence.
searchlight intelligence profile
these people show balanced strength across several intelligences, common among politicians and business people.
laser intelligence profile
these people show particular strength in one or two intelligences, common among artists and scientists.
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, appraise, and express emotions accurately and appropriately; to facilitate thinking; to understand and analyze emotions and to use emotional knowledge effectively; to regulate one's emotion to promote both emotional and intellectual growth.
heritability estimate
a statistical estimate of the degree of inheritance of a given trait or behavior, assessed by the degree of similarity between individuals who vary in their extent of genetic similarity. This increases across the lifespan.
social class and IQ
wealth versus poverty can affect intellectual functioning in many ways, health and education resources being two of the most obvious.
participatory education
a classroom environment when children are encouraged to initiate and plan their own activities and activities for the classroom group.
effect of high IQ scores
directly affects success; these IQ distinctions can also affect academic and job performance indirectly by changing one's motives and beliefs. These people are more likely to have successful experiences in school, become more motivated to study, develop an achievement orientation, and become optimistic about their chances of doing well.
effect of low IQ scores
these people might get "tracked" into schools, classes, or programs that are inferior and may even be stigmatizing to the students' sense of self-competence.
stereotype threat
the threat associated with being at risk for confirming a negative stereotype of one's group. Research suggests that a person's belief that a negative stereotype is relevant in a situation can function to bring about the poor performance encoded in the stereotype.
creativity
the ability to generate ideas or products that are both novel and appropriate to the circumstances.
divergent thinking
an aspect of creativity characterized by an ability to produce unusual but appropriate responses to problems. These tests give the test taker the opportunity to demonstrate 'fluid' and 'flexible' thinking. "Name or list all the things you can think of in..."
fluency
aspect of divergent thinking; the overall number of distinct ideas.
uniqueness
aspect of divergent thinking; the number of ideas given by no other person in an appropriate sample.
unusualness
aspect of divergent thinking; the number of ideas given by, for example, less than 5% of a sample.
convergent thinking
an aspect of creativity characterized by the ability to gather together different sources of information to solve a problem. We would credit people as being creative if they can put information together in a way that produces novel solutions.
remote associates test
used to study convergent thinking, test takers are challenged to find the term that provides a link for other words. "What word are all three of these words related to: fish, mine, rush?"
insight
circumstances of a problem solving in which solutions suddenly come to mind.
risk taking
traits of exceptionally creative people; highly creative individuals are willing to go into "uncharted waters"
preparation
traits of exceptionally creative people; highly creative individuals typically have spent years acquiring expertise in the domains in which they will excel.
intrinsic motivation
traits of exceptionally creative people; highly creative individuals pursue their tasks because of the enjoyment and satisfaction they take in the products they generate.
madness and creativity
exemplary 'creators' life experiences often border on - madness. Great creativity is intimately related to madness, the manic phases of individuals who suffer from "manic-depressive insanity", or bipolar disorder, provide a context of free-flowing thought processes that facilitate great creativity.
the fairness of test-based decisions
ethical concern of intelligence assessment; argument that the costs or negative consequences may be higher for some test takers than for others. The costs are higher, for example, on tests in which minority groups receive low scores are used to keep them out of certain jobs. Sometimes, minority group members test poorly because their scores are evaluated relative to inappropriate norms.
the utility of tests for evaluating education
ethical concern of intelligence assessment; the quality of school systems and the effectiveness of teachers are frequently judged on the basis of how well their students score on standardized achievement tests. Local support of the schools through tax levies, and even individual teacher salaries, may ride on test scores. The high stakes associated with test scores may lead to cheating.
using test scores as labels to categorize individuals
ethical concern of intelligence assessment; people too often think of themselves as being an IQ of 110 or a B student, as if the scores were simply labels. Such labels may become barriers to to advancement as people come to believe that their mental and personal qualities are fixed and unchangeable - that they cannot improve their lot in life. For those who are negatively assessed, the scores can become self-imposed motivational limits that lower their sense of self-efficacy and restrict the challenges they are willing to tackle.
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
the branch of psychology concerned with interaction between physical and psychological processes with stages of growth from conception throughout the entire life span. Investigators study the time periods in which different abilities and functions first appear and observe how those abilities are modified. The basic premise is that mental functioning, social relationships, and other vital aspects of human nature develop and change throughout the entire life cycle.
normative investigation
to document change, a good first step is to determine what an average person is like - in physical appearance, cognitive ability, and so on - at a particular age. Research effort designed to describe what is characteristic of a specific age or developmental stage. By systematically testing individuals of different ages, researchers can determine developmental landmarks. These data provide norms based on observation of many people.
developmental age
the chronological age at which most children show a particular level of physical or mental development.
longitudinal design
a research design in which the same participants are observed repeatedly, sometimes over many years. This long-term collection of information allows researchers to draw strong conclusions about a person's lifelong benefits or development, through studying individual differences.
the nature of change
always involves trade-offs, complementary gains and losses due to the amount of options one has. It is also important not to think of development as a passive process, many developmental changes require an individual's active engagement with his or her environment.
cohort
a disadvantage of the longitudinal research design, some types of generalizations can only be made to the same ____, the group of individuals born in the same time period as the research participants.
cross-sectional design
a research method in which groups of participants of different chronological ages are observed and compared at a given time. A researcher can then draw conclusions about behavioral differences that may be related to age changes.
physical development
the bodily changes, maturation, and growth that occur in an organism starting with conception and continuing across the life span.
zygote
the single cell that results when a sperm fertilizes an egg; offspring receives half of the 46 chromosomes found in all normal human body cells from the mother and half from the father.
germinal stage
the first two weeks of prenatal development following conception.
embryonic stage
the second stage of prenatal development, lasting from the third through eight weeks after conception. During this stage, rapid cell division continues, but the cells begin to become specialized to form different organs.
fetal stage
the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from the ninth week through the birth of the child.
teratogen
environmental factors such as diseases and drugs that cause structural abnormalities in a developing fetus.
Robert Fantz (1963)
a pioneering researcher who observed that babies as young as 4 months old preferred looking at objects with contours rather than those that were plain, complex ones rather than simple ones, and whole faces rather than faces with features in disarray. Infants have a preference for top-heavy patterns, such as human faces.
Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk (1960)
pair of researchers who discovered that once children start to move around in their environment, they quickly acquire other perceptual capabilities. These two researchers examined how children respond to depth information with a 'visual cliff'. Using a glass surface representing the 'deep end', they demonstrated that children would readily leave the center board to crawl across the shallow end, but they were reluctant to crawl across the deep end. This depends on the specific babies' prior crawling experience.
maturation
the continuing influence of heredity throughout development, the age-related physical and behavioral changes characteristic of a species.
pubescent growth spurt
at around age 10-12 for boys, growth hormones flow into the bloodstream. For several years, the adolescent may grow 3 to 6 inches a year gain weight rapidly as well. The adolescent's body does not reach adult proportions all at once, hand and feet grow fully first, then arms/legs, and torso development the slowest.
puberty
the process through which sexual maturity is attained. Signifies the growth of hair on the arms and legs, under the arms, and in the genital area. Brings about the production of live sperm in males, and menarche in females.
menarche
the onset of menstruation.
disuse
research supports a general belief in the maxim, "use it or lose it". Older adults who maintain (or renew) a program of physical fitness may experience fewer of the difficulties that are often thought to be inevitable consequences of aging.
cognitive development
the development of processes of knowing, including imagining, perceiving, reasoning, and problem solving. Highlights the distinction between John Locke's empiricism: crediting human development to experience, versus Jean-Jacques Rousseau's nativism view: that there is an evolutionary legacy that each child brings into the world, and it is the mold that shapes development.
schemes
Piaget's term for a cognitive structure that develops as infants and young children learn to interpret the world and adapt to their environment. Referred to as the building blocks of development, an infant's initial versions are 'sensorimotor intelligence' - mental structures or programs that guide sensorimotor sequences, such as sucking, looking, gasping, and pushing.
assimilation
according to Piaget, the process whereby new cognitive elements are fitted in with old elements or modified to fit more easily; this process works in tandem with accommodation. Thus, the child accesses existing schemes to structure incoming sensory data.
accommodation
according to Piaget, the process of restructuring or modifying cognitive structures so that new information can fit into them more easily; this process works in tandem with assimilation. Forces a children's thought processes to become more abstract, less dependent on external reality.
sensorimotor stage
stages in cognitive development; extends from birth to age 2. In the early months, much of an infant's behavior is based on a limited array of inborn schemes. like sucking, looking, grasping, and pushing. During the first year, these sequences are improved, combined, coordinated, and integrated - becoming more varied as infants discover how their actions affect the external environment.
preoperational stage
stages in cognitive development; extends from 2 to 7 years of age. The big cognitive advance in this development stage is an improved ability to represent mentally objects that are not physically present. Otherwise, Piaget characterizes this stage according to what the child cannot do, but the child does have improved ability to use symbolic thought. Children at this age are egocentric, and seem to be talking to themselves rather than interacting with others during conversation. These children also experience centration.
concrete operations stage
stages in cognitive development; extends from 7 to 11 years of age. At this stage, the child has become capable of mental operations, actions performed in the mind that give rise to logical thinking. Allows children to replace physical action with mental action. Child does achieve an understanding of 'conservation' - the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms or appearances of objects.
formal operations stage
stages in cognitive development; covers a span from 11 and beyond. In this stage of cognitive growth, thinking becomes abstract and hypothetical; adolescents can see how their particular reality is only one of several imaginable realities, and they begin to ponder deep questions of truth, justice, and existence. They seek answers to problems in a systematic fashion: once they achieve formal operations, children can start to play the role of scientist, trying each of a series of possibilities in careful order.
object permanence
the recognition that objects exist independently of an individual's action or awareness; an important cognitive acquisition of infancy.
egocentrism
in cognitive development, the inability of a young child at the preoperational stage to take the perspective of another person.
centration
peroperational children's tendency to focus their attention on only one aspect of a situation and disregard other relevant aspects. Illustrated by Piaget's classic demonstration of a child's inability to understand that the amount of a liquid does not change as a function of the size or shape of its container.
reversibility
a child's understanding that both physical actions and mental operations can be reversed; A child's ability to reverse operations and therefore recognize that the qualities of an object remain the same despite changes in appearance. Occurs in Piaget's Concrete Operational Stage of Cognitive Development (e.g., 1+2=3 to 3-2=1).
foundational theories
framework for initial understanding formulated by children to explain their experiences of the world. For example, children accumulate their experiences of the properties of mental states into theory of mind, or naive psychology. By doing so, they are better able to understand the thought processes of themselves and others.
internalization
learning (of values or attitudes etc.) that is incorporated within yourself; according to Vygotsky, the process through which children absorb knowledge from the social context. Thus, children's cognition develops to perform culturally valued functions.
aging intelligence
only about 5% of the population experiences major losses in cognitive functioning. Between crystallized and fluid, fluid intelligence seems to show the greater decline with regard to aging. This decrease in fluidity has been attributed to a general slowing down of processing speed: older adults' performance on intellectual tasks that require many mental processes to occur in small amounts of time is greatly impaired. Aging adults whose everyday lives have the highest levels of social, physical, and intellectual activity tend to show faster processing speed on cognitive tasks.
wisdom
expertise in the fundamental pragmatics of life.
aging memory
adults over 60 do perform worse on memory tests; people experience memory deficits with advancing age, even when they have been highly educated and otherwise have good intellectual skills. General knowledge and personal information memory doesn't diminish, but aging does affect the processes that allow new information to be effectively organized, stored, and retrieved.
phonemes
A child's first step in acquiring a particular language is to take note of the sound contrasts that are used meaningfully in that language. This is the minimal unit of speech in any given language that makes a meaningful difference in speech and production and reception; for example, 'r' and 'l' are two distinct phonemes in English but variations of one in Japanese.
infant-directed speech (or child-directed speech)
a form of speech addressed to infants that includes slower speed, distinctive intonation, and structural simplifications; researchers suggest that these special forms of speech provide infants and children with information that makes them better able to acquire phonemes and words from the language being used around them.
naming explosion
children are no doubt excellent word learners, at around 18 months, children's word learning often takes off at an amazing rate. By the age of 6, the average child is estimated to understand 14,000 words.
fast mapping
children have the ability to learn this ability that researchers call ____: they are able to learn the meanings of new words with minimal experience - sometimes with only a single exposure to a word and its referent.
principle of contrast
children's assumption that no two words have the same meaning. Hence they assume that a new word will not refer to something for which they already have a name; this principle suggests that differences in forms signal differences in meaning: when children hear new words, they should look for meanings that contrast with those for the words they already know.
acquiring grammar
linguist Noam Chomsky argued that children are born with mental structures that facilitate the comprehension and production of language. Children can acquire complete grammatical structure in the absence of well-formed input, certain aspects of grammar are likely supported by innate predispositions.
operating principles
innate assumptions and biases that cause children to pay particular attention to certain features in the language environments such as word endings, order, and intonation.
language-making capacity
the innate guidelines or operating principles that children bring to the task of learning a language. According to Dan Slobin's theory, operating principles take the form of directives for children; suggests that children must keep track of the relationship between the order in which words appear and the meanings they express.
telegraphic speech
a young child's speech which is characterized as being filled with short, simple sequences using mostly nouns and verbs. This kind of speech lacks function words, such as 'the', 'and', 'of', which help express the relationships between words and ideas.
extension
an operating principle, which requires children to try to use the same unit of meaning, or morpheme, to mark the same concept. Examples of such concepts are possession, past tense, and continuing action.
overregularization
a grammatical error, usually appearing during early language development, in which rules of the language are applied too widely, resulting in incorrect linguistic forms. For example, once children learn the past-tense or plural rule, they add -ed or -s to all verbs or words, incorrectly so. This usually appears after children have learned and used the correct forms of verbs and nouns.
social development
the ways in which individuals' social interactions and expectations change across the life span. Social and cultural environments interacts with biological aging to provide each period of the life span with its own special challenges and rewards.
psychosocial stages
proposed by Erik Ericson, one of the successive developmental stages that focus on an individual's orientation toward the self and others; these stages incorporate both the sexual and social aspects of a person's developmental and social conflicts that arise from the interaction between the individual and the social environment.
trust vs. mistrust
psychosocial stage; in the first stage, an infant needs to develop a basic sense of trust in the environment through interaction with caregivers. Trust is a natural accompaniment to a strong attachment relationship with a parent who provides food, warmth, and the comfort of physical closeness. But a child whose basic needs are not met, who experiences inconsistent handling, lack of physical closeness, and the frequent absence of a caring adult, may develop a pervasive sense of mistrust, insecurity, and anxiety.
autonomy vs. self-doubt
psychosocial stage; with the development of walking and the beginnings of language, there is an expansion of a child's exploration and manipulation of objects. With these activities should come a comfortable sense of autonomy, or independence, and of being a capable and worthy person. Excessive restriction or criticism at this second stage may lead instead to self-doubts, whereas demands beyond the child's ability can discourage the child's efforts to persevere in mastering new tasks.
initiative vs. guilt
psychosocial stage; toward the end of the preschool period, a child who has developed a basic sense of trust, first in the immediate environment and then in themselves, can now initiate both intellectual and motor activities. The ways that parents respond to the child's self-initiated activities either encourage the sense of freedom and self-confidence needed for the next stage or produce guilt and feelings of being an inept intruder in an adult world.
competence vs. inferiority
psychosocial stage; during the elementary school years, the child who has successfully resolved the crises of the earlier stages is ready to go beyond random exploring and testing to the systematic development of competencies. School and sports offer arenas for learning intellectual and motor skills, and interaction with peers offers an arena for developing social skills. Successful efforts in these pursuits lead to feelings of competence. Some youngsters, however, become spectators rather than performers or experience enough failure to give them a sense of inferiority, leaving them unable to meet the demands of the next life stages.
identity vs. role confusion
psychosocial stage; Erikson believed that the essential crisis of adolescence is discovering one's true identity amid the confusion created by playing many different roles for the different audiences in an expanding social world. Resolving this crisis helps the individual develop a sense of a coherent self; failing to do so adequately may result in a self-image that lacks a central, stable core.
intimacy vs. isolation
psychosocial stage; the essential crisis for the young adult is to resolve the conflict between intimacy and isolation - to develop the capacity to make full emotional, moral, and sexual commitments to other people. Making that kind of commitment requires that the individual compromise some personal preferences, accept some responsibilities, and yield some degree of privacy and independence. Failure to resolve this crisis adequately leads to isolation and the inability to connect to others in psychologically meaningful ways.
generativity vs. stagnation
psychosocial stage; a major opportunity for growth, which occurs during middle adult life, known as generativity. People in their 30s and 40s move beyond a focus on self and partner to broaden their commitments to family, work, society, and future generations. Those people who haven't resolved earlier developmental tasks are still self-indulgent, question past decisions and goals, and pursue freedom at the expense of security.
ego integrity vs. despair
psychosocial stage; a crisis later in adulthood, resolving the crises at each of the earlier stages prepares the older adult to look back without regrets and to enjoy a sense of wholeness. When previous crises are left unresolved, aspirations remain unfulfilled, and the individual experiences futility, despair, and self depreciation.
socialization
the lifelong process whereby an individual's behavioral patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes, and motives are shaped to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society. This process involves many people - relatives, friends, teachers - and institutions - schools, houses of worship - that exert pressure on the individual to adopt socially approved values and standards of conduct. The family is the most influential shaper and regulator of this.
temperament
a child's biologically based level of emotional and behavioral response to environmental events. Groups of children differ in sensitivity to physical and social stimulation: shy/inhibited babies are consistently "cautious and emotionally reserved when they confront unfamiliar persons or contexts"; the bold/uninhibited babies are consistently "sociable, affectively spontaneous, and minimally fearful in the same unfamiliar situations."
attachment
intense, enduring, emotional relationship between a child and the regular caregiver. Social development begins with the establishment of a close emotional relationship between a child and a mother, father, or other regular caregiver. Because children are incapable of feeding or protecting themselves, the earliest function of this is to ensure survival.
imprinting
a primitive form of learning in which some infant animals physically follow and form an attachment to the first moving object they see and/or hear.
internal working model
a memory structure that gathers together a child's history of interactions with his or her caretakers, the interactions that yielded a particular pattern of attachment. This model provides a template that an individual uses to generate expectations about future social interactions.
securely attached children
within Strange Situations Test; children which show some distress when the parent leaves the room; seek proximity, comfort, and contact upon reunion; and then gradually return to play.
insecurely attached-avoidant children
within Strange Situations Test; children seem aloof and may actively avoid and ignore the parent upon return.
insecurely attached-ambivalent (or resistant)
within Strange Situations Test; children which become quite upset and anxious when the parent leaves; at reunion, they cannot be comforted, and they show anger and resistance to the parent but, at the same time, express a desire for contact.
parenting style
the manner in which parents rear their children; an authoritative parenting style, which balances demandingness and responsiveness, is seen as the most effective. Children bring individual temperaments to their interactions with their parents. These temperaments may make parents' best (or worst) efforts at parenting have unexpected consequences.
demandingness
parenting style; refers to the parent's willingness to act as a socializing agents, whereas responsiveness refers to the parent's recognition of the child's individuality.
authoritative
parenting style; make appropriate demands on their children - they demand that their conform to appropriate rules of behavior - but are also responsive to their children. They keep channels of communication open to foster their children's ability to regulate themselves, this style is most likely to produce an effective parent-child bond.
authoritarian
parenting style; parents apply discipline with little attention to the child's autonomy.
indulgent
parenting style; parents are responsive, but they fail to help children learn about the structure of social rules in which they must live.
neglecting
parenting style; parents neither apply discipline nor are they responsive to their children's individuality.
contact comfort
comfort derived from an infant's physical contact with the mother or caregiver. In Harlow's monkey experiment, the baby monkeys spent more time with the cloth mother as opposed to the milk mother; using the cloth mother as a source of comfort when frightened and as a base of operations when exploring new stimuli.
human deprivation
circumstances tragically developed within human society for infants in which they are deprived of contact comfort. A lack of close, loving relationships in infancy affects physical growth and survival; studies of hospitalized infants over the years found that, despite adequate nutrition, the children often developed respiratory infections and fevers of unknown origin, failed to gain weight, and showed general signs of physiological deterioration.
the experience of adolescence
a uniquely tumultuous period of life, characterized by extreme mood swings and unpredictable, difficult behavior - 'storm and stress.' Not only is extreme turmoil a sign of adolescence but that failure to exhibit such turmoil is a sign of arrested development. Mead and Benedict argued that the storm-and-stress theory is not applicable to many non-Western cultures. They described cultures in which children gradually take on more and more adult responsibilities without any sudden stressful transition or period of indecision and turmoil.
independence
for cultures like the majority culture in the US, one consequence of adolescence is that children attempt to achieve ____ from their parents. Parents and their adolescent children must weather a transition in their relationship from one in which the adolescent is granted reasonable ____ to make important decisions.
peer relationships
adolescents participate in these relations at the three levels of friendships, cliques, and crowds.
intimacy
the capcity to make a full commitment - sexual, emotional, and moral - to another person. Can occur in both friendships and romantic relationships, requires openness, courage, ethical strength, and usually some compromise of one's personal preferences; it's a prerequisite for a sense of psychological well-being across the adult life stages.
generativity
a commitment beyond one's self and one's partner to family, work, society, and future generations; typically, a crucial state in development in one's 30s and 40s. An orientation toward the greater good allows adults to establish a sense of psychological well-being that offsets any longing for youth.
sex differences
one of the biologically based characteristics that distinguish males from females. These characteristics include different reproductive functions and differences in hormones and anatomy.
gender
a psychological phenomenon that refers to learned sex-related behaviors and attitudes of males and females.
gender identity
one's sense of maleness or femaleness; usually includes awareness and acceptance of one's biological sex.
gender stereotypes
belief about attributes and behaviors regarded as appropriate for males and females in a particular culture.
morality
a system of beliefs and values that ensures that individuals will keep their obligations to others in society and will behave in ways that do not interfere with the rights and interests of others. Developed among early human because it was adaptive to evolve a disposition "to resolve fundamental social dilemmas in cooperative ways."
moral reasoning
the aspect of cognitive development that has to do with how an individual reasons about moral decisions; the judgments people make about what courses of action are correct or incorrect in particular situations.
Lawrence Kohlberg's principles of moral reasoning
four principles: (1) an individual can only be at only one stage a given time, (2) everyone goes through the same stages in a fixed order, (3) each stage is more comprehensive and complex than the preceding, (4) the same stages occur in every culture.
Preconventional morality
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning; Stage 1 - pleasure/pain orientation, to avoid pain or capture. Stage 2 - cost-benefit orientation; reciprocity, to get rewards.
Conventional morality
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning; Stage 3 - good-child orientation, to gain acceptance and avoid disapproval. Stage 4 - law and order orientation, to follow rules, avoid censure by authorities.
Principled morality
Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning; Stage 5 - social contract orientation, to promote the society's welfare. Stage 6 - ethical principle orientation, to achieve justice and avoid self-condemnation. Stage 7 - cosmic orientation, to be true to universal principles and feel oneself part of a cosmic direction that transcends social norms.
gender differences moral reasoning
Carol Gilligan realized the potential differences between the habitual moral judgments of men and women. Women's moral development is based on a standard of caring for others and progresses to a stage of self-realization; whereas men base their reasoning on a standard of justice.
autonomy
cultural perspectives on moral reasoning; a focus on people who have needs, desires, and preferences; the moral goal is to recognize people's right to the fulfillment of these needs and desires.
community
cultural perspectives on moral reasoning; a focus on people as members of social groups such as family, school, and nation; the moral goal is fulfillment of role-based duties to others, and the protections and positive functioning of social groups.
divinity
cultural perspectives on moral reasoning; a focus on people as spiritual or religious entities; the moral goal is for the self to become increasingly connected to the pure or divine.
selective optimization with compensation
a strategy for successful aging in which one makes the most gains while minimizing the impact of losses that accompany normal aging. Selective means that people scale down the number and extent of their goals for themselves. Optimization refers to people excercising or training themselves in areas that are of highest priority to them. Compensation means that people use alternative ways to deal with losses - for example, choosing age-friendly environments.
MOTIVATION
the process of starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities; includes mechanisms involved in preferences for one activity over another and the vigor and persistence of responses; originated from latin 'movere' meaning 'to move'. Theories explain both the general patterns of "movement" of each animal species, including humans, and the personal preferences and performances of the individual members of each species.
(to relate) biology (to behavior)
5 basic motivational purposes; as biological organism, you have complex internal mechanisms that regulate your bodily functioning and help you survive. Organisms are hungry, thirsty, or cold. In each case, internal states of deprivation trigger bodily responses that motivate you to take action to restore your body's balance.
(to account for) behavioral variability
5 basic motivational purposes; psychologists use motivational explanations when the variations in people's performance in a constant situation cannot be traced to differences in ability, skill, practice, or chance.
(to infer) private states (from public acts)
5 basic motivational purposes; psychologists and laypersons are alike in typically moving from observing some behavior to inferring some internal cause for it. People are continually interpreting behavior in terms of likely reasons for why it occurred as it did. Similarly, you often seek to discover whether your own actions are best understood as internally or externally motivated.
(to assign) responsibility (for actions)
5 basic motivational purposes; the concept of personal responsibility is basic in law, religion, and ethics. Personal responsibility presupposes inner motivation and the ability to control your actions. People are judged less responsible for their actions when (1) they did not intend negative consequences to occur, (2) external forces were powerful enough to evoke the behaviors, or (3) the actions were influenced by drugs, alcohol, or intense emotion. Thus a theory of motivation must be able to discriminate among the different potential causes of behavior.
(to explain) perseverance (despite adversity)
5 basic motivational purposes; explains why organisms perform behaviors when it might be easier not to perform them. Motivation gets you to work or class on time even when you're exhausted, and helps you to persist in playing the game to the best of your ability even when you are losing and realize that you can't possible win.
drives
internal state that arises in response to a disequilibrium in an animal's psychological needs; activates an organism towards tension and reduction.
homeostasis
constancy or equilibrium of the internal conditions of the body; deprivation of mandatory resources creates disequilibrium or 'tension' which arouses a drive.
incentives
external stimulus or reward that motivates behavior although it does not relate directly to biological needs. Even though rats might feel biological pressure to eat or drink, they also indulge an impulse to explore a new environment.
instincts
preprogrammed tendency that is essential to a species survival. Provide repertories of behavior that are part of each animal's genetic inheritance.
human instinct
much like animals, humans have host of social instincts but for sympathy, modesty, sociability, and love. By the 1920s, psychologists had compiled lists of over 10,000 human instincts. Behaviorists objected to the circular reasoning giving rise to claims about human instincts: people are sympathetic because they have an instinct to be sympathetic; sympathetic behavior confirms the existence of the instinct.
social-learning theory
the learning theory that stresses the role of observation and the imitation of behaviors observed in others. For Julian Rotter, the probability that you will engage in a given behavior (studying instead of partying) is determined by your expectation of attaining a goal (getting a good grade) that follows the activity and by the personal value of that goal. a 'discrepancy' between expectations and reality can motivate an individual to perform corrective behaviors.
Fritz Heider
psychologists who outlined how expectations relate to internal and external forces of motivation. He postulated that the outcome of your behavior can be attributed to 'dispositional forces', such as lack of effort or insufficient intelligence, or to 'situational forces', such as an unfair test or biased teacher; these attributions influence the way you will behave.
hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow's view that basic human motives form a hierarchy and that the needs at each level of the hierarchy must be satisfied before the next level can be achieved; these needs progress from basic biological needs, to safety, attachment, esteem, and finally self-actualization.
biological needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs; needs for food, water, oxygen, rest, sexual expression, release from tension. They must be met before any other needs can begin to operate, and when these needs are pressing, other needs are put on hold and unlikely to influence your actions.
safety needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs; needs for security, comfort, tranquility, freedom from fear.
attachment needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs; needs to belong, to affiliate, to love and be loved.
esteem needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs; needs for confidence, sense of worth and competence, self-esteem and respect of others.
self-actualization
Maslow's hierarchy of needs; needs to fulfill potential, have meaningful goals. At the top of the hierarchy are people who are nourished, safe, loved, and loving, secure, thinking, and creating. These people have moved beyond basic human needs in the quest for the fullest development of their potentials. This person is self-aware, self-accepting, socially responsive, creative, spontaneous, and open to novelty and challenge, among other positive attributes.
physiology of eating
to regulate food intake effectively, organisms must be equipped with mechanisms that accomplish four tasks: (1) detect internal food need, (2) initiate and organize eating behavior, (3) monitor the quantity and quality of the food eaten, and (4) detect when enough food has been consumed and stop eating.
sensory-specific satiety
the phenomenon by which a person or animal who is satiated on one food still has an appetite for another food that has a different taste.
dual-center model
eating model; lateral hypothalamus (LH) is though to be the "hunger center", and the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) the "safety center"
obesity predisposition
genetic mechanisms that may predispose some individuals to obesity; for example, a gene has been isolated that appears to control signals to the brain that enough fat has been stored in the body in the course of a meal - so the individual should stop eating. The gene influences the production of a hormone called leptin. Leptin works in opposition to cannbinoids to keep appetite under control. Thus the gene that controls leptin appears to have a critical influence on weight regulation and the potential for obesity.
restrained eaters
eaters that put constant limits on the amount of food they will let themselves eat: they are chronically on diets; constantly worrying about food. When these eaters become 'disinhibited' - when life circumstances cause them to let down their restraints - they tend to indulge in high-calorie binges, leading to sudden weight gain.
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which an individual weighs less than 85 percent of her or his expected weight but still expresses intense fear of becoming fat. May binge and then purge as a way of minimizing calories absorbed.
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by measures to purge the body of excess calories - self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, fasting.
binge eating disorder
an eating disorder characterized by out of control binge eating without subsequent purges. People who suffer from this disorder feel, during their binges, that they have lost control; the binge causes them great distress.
body dissatisfaction
discomfort with weight, body shape, and appearance; often related to people's inaccurate and distorted perceptions of their bodies. High levels can put people at risk for eating disorders.
sexual arousal
the motivation state of excitement and tension brought about by psychological and cognitive reactions to erotic stimuli. Sexual arousal induced by erotic stimuli is reduced by sexual activities that are perceived by the individual as satisfying, especially by achieving orgasm. In both men and women, testosterone levels greatly influence this.
sexual activity in men and women
based on William Masters and Virginia Johnson's research; significant conclusions drawn: (1) men and women have similar patterns of sexual response, (2) although the sequences of phases of the sexual response cycle is similar in both, women are more variable, tending to respond more slowly but often remaining aroused longer, (3) women can have multiple orgasms, whereas men don't, (4) penis size is generally unrelated to any aspect of sexual performance
excitement phase
phase of the human sexual response cycle; vascular changes in the pelvic region, penis becomes erect and clitoris swells; blood and other fluids become congested in the testicles and vagina, and sex flush occurs.
plateau phase
phase of the human sexual response cycle; a maximum level of arousal is reached; increased heartbeat, respiration, and blood pressure, increased glandular secretions, and muscle tension. Vaginal lubrication increases and the breasts swell.
orgasm phase
phase of the human sexual response cycle; males and females experience a very intense, pleasurable sense of release from the sexual tension that has been building. Characterized by rhythmic contractions that occur in the genital areas.
resolution phase
phase of the human sexual response cycle; the body gradually returns to its normal preexcitement state, blood pressure and heartbeat slowing. After one orgasm, most men enter a refractory period, during which no further orgasm is possible. With sustained arousal, some women are capable of multiple orgasms in fairly rapid succession.
parental investment
the time and energy parents must spend raising their offspring.
emotional involvement
according to evolutionary theory, a woman should experience jealousy when she suspects that her partner might no longer feel committed to providing resources to raise her children - these concerns focus on _____.
sexual infidelity
according to evolutionary theory, men should experience jealousy when he suspects that he is being burdened by children with whom he has no genetic relationship - these concerns focus on ______.
sexual script
socially learned program of sexual responsiveness. Different aspects of these scripts are assembled through social interaction over your lifetime. The attitudes and values embodied in your sexual script are an external source of sexual motivation: the script suggests the types of behaviors you might or should undertake.
date rape
unwanted sexual violation by social acquaintance in the context of a consensual dating situation.
thematic apperception test (TAT)
a projective test in which pictures of ambiguous scenes are presented to an individual, who is encouraged to generate stories about them. Participants shown TAT pictures were asked to make up stories - to say what was happening in the picture and describe probable outcomes. Presumably, they projected into the scene reflections of their own values, interests, and motives.
need for achievement (designated as n Ach)
an assumed basic human need to strive for achievement of goals that motivates a wide range of behavior and thinking. These high-scoring people were found to be more upwardly mobile, typically these individuals strive for greater efficiency.
attributions
judgment about the causes of outcomes. "To what extent does a causal factor reside within an individual, or is it a general factor in the environment?" - differences between internal and external dimensions.
stability vs. instability
dimension along which attributions can vary; "to what extent is a causal factor likely to be stable and consistent over time, or unstable and varying?" Attribution on an exam, personal ability (stable) vs. effort (instable, or varying).
global vs. specific
dimension along which attributions can very; "to what extent is a causal factor highly specific, limited to a particular task or situation, or global, applying widely across a variety of settings?"
attributional style
a person's characteristic way of explaining outcomes of events in his or her life. The way people account for their successes and failures along the three dimensions can influence motivation, mood, and even ability to perform appropriately. This can affect people's activity and passivity, whether they persist of give up easily, take risks, or play if safe.
pessimism vs. optimism
focusing on the causes of failure as internally generated, the bad situation and the individual's role in causing it are seen as stable and global - vs. - see failure as the result of external causes, "test was unfair", and of events that are unstable or modifiable and specific - "if I put in more effort next time"
organizational psychologists
psychologist who studies various aspects of the human work environment, such as communication among employees, socialization or enculturation of workers, leadership, job satisfaction, stress and burnout, and overall quality of life. As consultants to businesses, they may assist in recruitment, selection, and training of employees, including making recommendations about job design.
equity theory
a cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated to maintain fair and equitable relationships with other relevant persons; also, a model that postulates equitable relationships are those in which the participants' outcomes (what they receive) are proportional to their inputs (investments or contributions they make to their jobs).
expectancy theory
a cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated when they expect their efforts and job performance to result in desired outcomes. People will engage in work they find attractive (leading to favorable consequences) and achievable.
three components of expectancy theory
(expectancy): the perceived likelihood that a worker's efforts will result in a certain level of performance. (Instrumentality): the perception that performance will lead to certain outcomes, such as rewards. (Valence): the perceived attractiveness of particular outcomes.
Erikson's Psychosocial Stages (chronologically)
(trust v. mistrust), (autonomy v. self-doubt), (initiative v. guilt), (competence v. inferiority), (identity v. role confusion), (intimacy v. isolation), (generativity v. stagnation), (ego integrity v. despair)
EMOTION
a complex pattern of changes, including physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive processes, and behavioral reactions, made in response to a situation perceived to be personally significant. The associated cognitive processes of happiness include interpretations, memories, and expectations that allow you to label the situation as 'happy'. Your overt behavioral reactions might be expressive (smiling) and/or action-oriented (embracing a loved one).
Silvan Tomkins
one of the first psychologists to emphasize the pervasive role of immediate, unlearned affective (emotions) reactions. Babies naturally respond to loud sounds with fear.
Paul Ekman
leading researcher on the nature of facial expressions, all people share an overlap in "facial language". Demonstrated that a set of emotional expressions is universal to the human species, presumably because they are innate components of our evolutionary heritage.
griots
high caste members of this culture are expected to show great restraint in their expressions of emotionality; low caste individuals are expected to be more volatile, particularly a caste called ____. They are often called upon to express the "undignified" emotions of the nobility.
emergency reaction system
triggered by strong emotions such as fear and anger can activate this which swiftly and silently prepares the body for potential danger
hypothalamus
integration of both the hormonal and the neural aspects of arousal is controlled by the...
amygdala
gateway for emotion and as a filter for memory
cortex
involved in emotional experiences through its internal neural networks and its connections with other parts of the body. Provides the associations, memories, and meanings that integrate psychological experience and biological responses.
James-Lange theory of emotion
perceiving a stimulus causes autonomic arousal and other bodily actions that lead to the experience of a specific emotion. Considered a peripheralist theory because it assigns the most prominent role in the emotion chain to visceral reactions.
visceral reactions
actions of the autonomic nervous system that are peripheral to the central nervous system
Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
a centralist focus, states that an emotion stimulus produces two concurrent reactions, arousal and experience of emotion, that do not cause each other. If something makes you angry, your heartbeat increases at the same time you think "I'm ticked off!"; but neither your body nor your mind dictates the way the other responds. This theory predicts independence between the bodily and psychological responses.
Stanley Schachter two-factor theory of emotion
theory explaining how people deal with uncertainty. States the experience of emotion is the joint effect of the two factors of physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal. On this view, all arousal is assumed to be general and undifferentiated, and arousal is the first step in the emotion sequence. You appraise your physiological arousal in an effort to discover what you are feeling, what emotional label best fits, and what your reaction means in the particular setting in which it is being experienced.
Richard Lazarus
leading proponent of the importance of cognitive appraisal, maintained that "emotional experience cannot be understood solely in terms of what happens in the person or in the brain, but grows out of ongoing transactions with the environment that are evaluated". Asserted that appraisal often occurs without conscious thought.
cognitive appraisal theory of emotion
a theory stating that the experience of emotion is the joint effect of psychological arousal and cognitive appraisal, which serves to determine how an ambiguous inner state of arousal will be labeled. Environmental cues provide this label.
Robert Zajonc
critic of the cognitive appraisal theory; demonstrated conditions under which people have preferences - emotional responses to stimuli - without knowing why
subjective well-being
individuals overall evaluation of life satisfaction and happiness
positive psychology
a movement within psychology that applies research to provide people with the knowledge and skills that allow them to experience fulfilling lives; "can psychologists take what they have learned about the science and practice of treating mental illness and use it to create a practice of making people lastingly happier?"
stress
pattern of responses an organism makes to stimulus events that disturb its equilibrium and tax or exceed its ability to cope. The stimulus events include a large variety of external and internal conditions that collectively are called stressors. An individual's response to the need for change in made up of a diverse combination of reactions taking place on several levels, including physiological, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive.
stressor
stimulus event that places a demand on an organism for some kind of adaptive response
acute stress
transient states of arousal with typically clear onset and offset patterns
chronic stress
state of enduring arousal, continuing over time, in which demands are perceived as greater than the inner and outer resources available for dealing with them. An example might be a continuous frustration with your inability to find time to do all the things you want to do.
fight-or-flight response
sequence of activity is triggered in the nerves and glands to prepare the body either to defend itself and struggle or to run away to safety; controlled by hypothalamus, the stress center, which controls the autonomic nervous system and activates the pituitary gland.
adrenal medulla
triggered by stress and a function of the ANS, this inner part of the adrenal glands release two hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, which in turn signal other organs to perform their specialized functions
pituitary gland
responds to signals form the hypothalamus by secreting two hormones (thyrotropic + adrenocorticotropic) vital to the stress reaction
thyrotropic hormone
stimulates the thyroid gland which makes more energy for the body
adrenocorticotropic hormone
known as the stress hormone, stimulates the outer part of the adrenal glands, the adrenal cortex, resulting in the release of hormones that control metabolic processes and the release of sugar from the liver into the blood
Shelley taylor
health psychologist; suggests that these psychological responses to stress may have different consequences for females than for males; suggests females do not experience "fight-or-flight"; stressors lead females to experience tend-and-befriend response.
tend-and-befriend response
what Shelly taylor believes females experience instead of fight-or-flight. States females ensure the safety of their offspring by tending to their needs and that females befriend other members of their social group with the same goal of reducing the vulnerability of their offspring.
Hans Selye
Canadian endocrinologist investigated the effects of continued severe stress; found through testing animals that all stressors call for adaptation: An organism must maintain or regain its integrity and well being by restoring equilibrium or homeostasis, called general adaptation syndrome.
general adaptation syndrome
An organism must maintain or regain its integrity and well being by restoring equilibrium or homeostasis. Includes three stages: an alarm reaction, a stage of resistance, and a stage of exhaustion.
psychosomatic disorder
physical disorder aggravated by or primarily attributable to prolonged emotional stress or other psychological causes; illnesses that could not be wholly explained by physical causes.
life-change unit
in stress research, the measure or the stress levels of different types of change experienced during a given period
post-traumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by the persistant reexperience of traumatic events through the distressing recollection, dreams, hallucinations, or dissociative flashbacks; develops in response to rapes, life threatening events, severe injury and natural disasters. The emotional pain of the reactions can result in an increase in various symptoms, such as sleep problems, guilt about surviving, difficulty in concentrating, and an exaggerated startle response.
coping
process of dealing with internal or external demands that are perceived to be life threatening or overwhelming. May consist of behavioral, emotional, or motivational responses and thoughts.
stress moderator variable
variable that changes the impact of a stressor on a given type of stress reaction; filter or modify the usual effects of stressors on the individual's reactions. For example, your level of fatigue and general health status are ____ ____ influencing your reaction to a given psychological or physical stressor.
cognitive appraisal
the cognitive interpretation and evaluation of a stressor; plays a central role in defining the situation - what the demand is, how big a threat it is, and what resources you have for meeting it.
primary appraisal
initial evaluation of the seriousness of a demand; this evaluation starts with the questions, and if the answer is 'stressful' then you appraise the potential impact of the stressor by determining whether harm has occurred or is likely to and whether action is required.
secondary appraisal
once you decide something must be done about a stressful stimulus, you evaluate the personal and social resources that are available to deal with the stressful circumstance and consider the action options that are needed.
subjective workload
extent to which a person FEELS busy or rushed
anticipatory coping
efforts made in advance of a potentially stressful event to overcome, reduce, or tolerate the imbalance between perceived demands and available resources
controllable stressors
stressors you can change or eliminate through your actions.
problem-directed coping
designed to deal directly with the stressor, whether through overt action or through realistic problem-solving activities. Such problem-solving efforts are useful for managing 'controllable stressors' - those stressors that you can change or eliminate through your actions, such as overbearing bosses or underwhelming grades.
emotion-focused coping
useful for managing the impact of more uncontrollable stressors; because you cannot eliminate the source of stress, you can try to change your feelings and thoughts about the stressor. These approaches still constitute a coping strategy because you are acknowledging that there is a threat to your well-being and you are taking steps to modify that threat.
perceived control
belief that one has the ability to make a difference in the course of the consequences of some event or experience.
social support
resources, including material aid, socioemotional support, and information aid, provided by others to help a person cope with stress. In addition to forms of emotional support, other people may provide 'tangible support' (money, transportation, housing) and 'informational support' (advice, personal feedback, information).
post-traumatic growth
positive psychological change in response to a traumatic event; occurs in 5 domains: new possibilities, relating to others, personal strength, appreciation of life, and spiritual change.
health psychology
field of psychology devoted to understanding the ways people stay healthy, the reason they become ill and the ways they respond when they become ill. The general goal of this field is to use psychological knowledge to promote wellness and positive health behavior.
health
general condition of soundness and vigor of body and mind; not simply the absence of illness or injury, but is more a matter of how well all the body's component parts are working together.
hozho
Navajo concept referring to harmony, peace of mind, goodness, ideal family relationships, beauty in arts and crafts, and health of body and spirit. This cultural orientation guarantees that a powerful social support network will automatically come to the aid any sufferer of 'disharmony'.
biopsychosocial model
model of health and illness that suggests links among the nervous system, the immune system, behavioral styles, cognitive processing and environmental domains of health.
wellness
optimal health; incorporating the ability to function fully and actively over the physical, intellectual, emotional, spiritual, social, and environmental domains of health.
health promotion
development and implementation of general strategies and specific tactics to eliminate or reduce the risk that people will become ill
AIDS
'acquired immune deficiency syndrome', a syndrome caused by a virus that damages the immune system and weakens the body's ability to fight infection.
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus, a virus that attacks white blood cells (T lymphocytes) in human blood, thereby weakening the functioning of the immune system; HIV causes AIDS
relaxation response
a condition in which muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, and blood pressure decrease and breathing slows. In this low level of arousal, recuperation from stress can take place, four conditions are necessary: quiet environment, closed eyes, comfortable position, and a repetitive mental device.
biofeedback
self-regulatory technique by which an individual acquires voluntary control over nonconscious biological processes. Used for control of blood pressure, relaxation of forehead muscles, and even diminishment of extreme blushing.
psychoneuroimmunology
research area that investigates interactions between psychological processes, such as responses to stress, and the functions of the immune system. Confirms that stressors - and how people cope with them - have a consistent impact on the ability of the immune system to function effectively.
type A behavior pattern
complex pattern of behaviors and emotions that includes excessive emphasis on competition, aggression, impatience and hostility; 'hostility' - defined as the consistency with which individuals look at the world and other people in a cynical and negative manner - increases the risk of coronary heart disease.
type B behavior pattern
behavior pattern that is less competitive, less aggressive and less hostile pattern of behavior and emotion.
job burnout
syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment, often experienced by workers in high stress professions that demand high-intensity interpersonal contact with patients, clients, or the public; coined by Christina Maslach
mood
in contrast to emotions, ___ are often less intense and may last for several say. There's often a weaker connection between these and their triggering events, you might be in a good or bad one without knowing exactly why.
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
prepares the body for emotional responses through the action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Sympathetic is more active when dealing with mild, unpleasant stimulation. Parasympathetic is more active with mild, pleasant stimulation.
stress inoculation
cognitive behavior therapist, Donald Meichenbaum, proposed this three-phase process; phase 1, people work to develop a greater awareness of their actual behavior, what instigates it, and what its results are - increases feelings of control. Phase 2, people begin to identify new behaviors that negate the maladaptive, self-defeating behaviors. Phase 3, after adaptive behaviors are being emitted, individuals appraise the consequences of their new behaviors, avoiding the former internal dialogue of put-downs. This three phase approach means initiating responses and self-statements that are incompatible with previous defeatist cognitions.