# Peds final (ch 1, 3-7, 13-15, 18-21, 23): part 2 (fixed)

The nurse is examining a 3-year-old girl during a regular visit. Which finding would disclose a developmental delay in this child?
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A:
• Cheese
• Pieces of apples
• Orange slices
• Yogurt
R:Good choices for between-meal snacks include fruits such as pieces of apples or orange slices, and protein foods such as cheese or pieces of chicken. Cheese as well as yogurt provide calcium. Cookies and other high carbohydrate foods should be avoided because they promote dental caries
A: A tantrum preceded the event.
R: The fact that there was a precipitating event of frustration and anger points to the likelihood that this is a cyanotic breath-holding spell. Breath-holding spells never occur during sleep, nor do they feature postictal confusion. Unconsciousness is not definitive because it is common to both seizures and breath-holding spells.
While awaiting an appointment at the doctor's office for his 20-month-old daughter, a young father is astonished to see his daughter assume a proper stance and swing a toy golf club in the play area of the waiting room. A nurse also observes the behavior, and the father recalls that his daughter saw him practicing his golf swing in their back yard a few days ago. The nurse explains that this is an instance of which of the following?
A:Deferred imitation
R: Children at this stage are able to remember an action and imitate it later (deferred imitation); they can do such things as pretend to drive a car or put a baby to sleep because they have not seen this just previously but at a past time. Toddlers engage in assimilation when they learn to change a situation (or how they perceive it) because they are not able to change their thoughts to fit the situation, such as shaking a toy hammer as if it were a rattle, because they are more familiar with rattles than hammers. All during the toddler period, children play beside children next to them, not with them. This side-by-side play (called parallel play) is not unfriendly but is a normal developmental sequence that occurs during the toddler period. Autonomy, or independence, is the primary developmental task of the toddler years, according to Erikson. Although this child's act may be a sign of autonomy, it is more specifically an act of deferred imitation