33 terms

Ebio Exam 2: 1.Conservation

large, flightless bird, native to Mauritius. Nested on the ground, humans brough dogs and pigs that ate all the _____ eggs, quickly became extinct
Passenger Pigeon
used to be most abundant bird in North American. once about 5 million, took us 50 years to kill them all
Rachel Carson
marine biologist, became environmental spokesperson later in life
Silent Spring
Rachel Carson's book on the results of chemical warfare on the environment
simplification (of ecosystems)
what humans do to ecosystems by destroying species, feedback loops, interactions between organisms; number of species is reduced, biodiversity reduced, simpler version of what we had before
exotic species (know examples also)
a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental; i.e. zebra mussel, nutria, water hyacinth, brown tree snake
land conversion
Converting a forested area to another use such as agricultural land or urban area.
habitat loss (destruction)
process in which natural habitat is rendered functionally unable to support the species present, one of the greatest causes of species extinction
large areas of habitat are reduced to smaller patches, which are now isolated from one another by new and different habitats, like fields, roads, farms and citites. tiny islands of natural habitat surrounded by a hostile sea. one of the greatest causes of species extinction
deforestation (tropic vs. termperate pattern)
the temporary or permanent clearance of large expanses of forests for agriculture or other uses
theory of island biogeography
the equilibrium number of species on an island will be a balance between the opposing forces of immigration and extinction
the movement of individuals among populations, from one region or country to another
waif dispersal
a factor on the rate of immigration; how a species immigrates by chance (squirrel on a log)
rate of immigration
depends on distance from island to mainland and dispersal ability of the colonizers
rate of extinction
rate that species go extinct on the island
equilibrium number of speices
balance between the rate of immigration and the rate of extinction
small volcanic island in the Dutch East Indes, near Java and Sumatra, see notes
neotropical migrant
species that breeds in North America and spends the non-breeding season south of the Tropic of Cancer
conservation biology
became a science in 1980s, multidisciplinary science that focuses on the study of how humans impact organisms and on the development of ways to protect bioligical diversity
game species
any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated
non-game species
type of wild animal that is not hunted
resource management
a purposeful activity with the goal to maintain and improve the state of an environmental resource affected by human activities
consumptive use
the use of a resource that reduces the supply (removing water from a source like a rive, lake or aquifer) without returning and equal amount
non-consumptive use
individuals may use (i.e. observe), yet not consume, certain living ocean resources, like whale watching or scuba diving
number of different species in a given area
alpha diversity
diversity of species in a local habitat type, ex: local wetland or forest
beta diversity
local biodiversity across several different types of habitats
gamma diversity
regional biodiverstity over a large area with many types of habitats
species diversity
total number of genes that are characteristic of a species or group of species
species richness
total number of species
species evenness
relative abundance of species across different habitats or regions
species dominance
which species are most abundant in a particular ecosystem
ecological diversity
number of trophic levels, number of available niches, complexity of food web