Career Counseling Midterm
EDC 556 Midterm: Career Development Theories and Practices
Terms in this set (146)
What are the three benefits of using theory for career counseling?
1.) Explain the phenomenon of career choice and change.
2.) Predict future events, such as job satisfaction.
3.) Serve as guidelines for practice, tools, and techniques.
What are three limitations to using theory for career counseling?
1.) Each researcher looks at career choice and development from his/her own perspective.
2.) Samples used from research may not represent total population.
3.) Theories may be culturally restrictive.
What are the two goals of career counseling?
1.) Selection of an occupation.
2.) Adjustment to an occupation.
What are four criteria by which to evaluate CDTs?
1.) It needs to be explicit about their rules and theorems.
2.) It needs to be precise about the limitations of their predictions.
3.) When developed, it needs to be tested (research needs to provide pos/neg support for the theory).
4.) It needs to be consistent and clear.
What is the key to any good career development theory?
It must provide a useful way of explaining and understanding career development.
What does Career Development Theory attempt to do?
Explain behavior that occurs over many years and is made up of reactions to thousands of situations, experiences, and people, such as school, hobbies, and parents.
What three things should a counselor take into consideration when selecting a theory?
1.) Client population (age, gender, setting, etc.).
2.) Own view/style of counseling.
3.) Whether it's manageable and relatively easy to draw on in a counseling session.
What are the four basic conditions necessary for change, as specified by Carl Rogers?
1.) Unconditional Positive Regard
Name the eight helping skills in career counseling theory.
Attending Skills, Questions, Statements & Reflections, Continuation Responses, Giving Information Not Opinion, Reinforcement, Family by Exploration, and Assessment Interpretations.
What are attending skills in CDT?
The counselor's nonverbal presence (i.e., facing client squarely, open posture, good eye contact, relaxed presence).
What are two types of reflection statements and how can they be achieved in CDT?
1.) Feeling; rephrase what the client said to focus on the emotional content of the statement.
2.) Content; restating what the client said to direct attention to the situation, person, or general idea.
What is a continuation response in CDT?
A verbal comment or nonverbal gesture indicating a need for more information (i.e., nodding, saying "mhmm").
What are two essential factors of giving the client information?
1.) Information must be accurate, up-to-date, and clear.
2.) If you don't know, refer to the appropriate source.
What are two types of assessment instruments used in CDTs and what is the difference between them?
1.) Tests: ability and achievement tests where individuals attempt to perform as well as possible.
2.) Inventories: instruments that solicit a preference or viewpoint (most common measure values and personalities).
What two roles do assessment instruments play in CDT?
1.) Can be used to develop and verify a theory.
2.) Can provide the counselor with information that can be used as a means of understanding the client from the pov of CDT.
Who is the "Father of Career Development"?
What are four contributions Frank Parsons made to CD?
1.) Paved the way for vocational guidance in schools and colleges.
2.) Began training of counselors.
3.) Used the scientific tools available to him.
4.) Developed steps to be followed in the vocational progress of an individual.
What are the five basic principles to the Parsonian Approach?
1.) It is better to choose a vocation than merely hunt for a job.
2.) No one should choose a vocation without careful self-analysis.
3.) Youth should survey many vocations, not just drop into a convenient or accidental position.
4.) Considering expert advice provided by those who have made a careful study of people, vocations, and the conditions of success improves decision making.
5.) Putting thoughts down on paper is of supreme importance.
What is the goal of the Parsonian approach?
To make a decision based on the goal that was established at the beginning.
What are the three steps to the Parsonian Approach?
1.) SELF-KNOWLEDGE--develop a clear understanding of yourself (attitudes, abilities, interests, ambitions, and resource limitations).
2.) OCCUPATIONAL KNOWLEDGE--develop knowledge of requirements & conditions of success, advantages and disadvantages, compensation, prospects of jobs.
3.) DECISION-MAKING SKILLS--use true reasoning to relate these two groups of facts.
What are the five basic traits and factors that can be assessed by testing and interviewing?
What does aptitude reveal about a person?
His/her probable FUTURE level of ability to perform a task.
What does ability measure and reveal about a person?
It measures the maximum performance and reveals the level of a person's PRESENT ability to perform a task.
What does achievement reveal about a person?
How much and individual HAS learned (past).
What is the best indicator of academic performance?
PREVIOUS academic performance.
What are two types of interest scales?
1.) Basic interest scale (activities)
2.) Occupational interest scale (specific occupations)
Out of aptitude, ability, achievement, interests, and personality, which has become the most important trait used in occupational selection?
Which two traits and factors are often discussed together in career counseling (aptitude, ability, achievement, interests, and personality)?
Ability and Interests.
How were interest inventories, such as the Strong Interest Inventory, developed?
By measuring the interests of successful and satisfied people in an occupation.
What two types of values are most important in career counseling?
1.) General values
2.) Work-related values
What path should you take for a client with strong values, when selecting a career?
Focus on their values, then narrow down by their interests.
What is the most important type of information for a counselor to know in regards to occupations?
The description of an occupation.
What often determines which career classification system is used by a counselor?
The classification system which is used by the occupational library in his/her setting.
According to trait and factor theory, what is the major goal of career counseling?
Integrating information about one's self and the world of work.
Though computer guidance systems can provide immediate feedback for the client by combining tests and occupational information, what don't they measure?
What are two examples of computer guidance systems?
SIGI Plus and Discover.
The process of trait and factor theory requires moving between what two things?
The assessment of one's self and occupational information.
T/F. It is possible for one's abilities, interests, and personality to suggest three different groups of occupations.
Which could essentially provide more useful information in making career decisions: the counseling interview or an assessment instrument?
The counseling interview.
Who developed the Work Adjustment Theory?
Rene Dawis & Lloyd Lofquist.
Define "work adjustment" as described by Dawis & Lofquist.
A continuous dynamic process by which a worker seeks to achieve and maintain correspondence with a work environment (indicated by tenure).
How is work adjustment different from other theories?
It is concerned with job tenure and performance.
What are the two major components to the prediction of work adjustment?
How is work adjustment theory a specific example of general trait and factor theory?
It makes use of clearly defined concepts and follows and articulated theoretical model.
Why are "abilities" and "values" the measurements of choice in WAT?
The measurement of skills and needs is awkward and difficult, since so many of both may be required in a single job.
If abilities and values are used to measure individuals in WAT, what concepts are used to measure the work environment?
1.) Ability requirements
2.) Reward system
Define satisfaction in terms of WAT.
The extent to which an individual's needs and requirements are fulfilled by the work he/she does.
Define satisfactoriness in terms of WAT.
The employer's satisfaction with the individual's performance.
Together, what do satisfactoriness and satisfaction equal?
Who developed the General Aptitude Test Battery, and what does it assess?
The U.S. Department of Labor; nine specific abilities.
Who developed the Minnesota Importance Questionnaire, and what does it measure?
Dawis & Lofquist; 6 values that were derived from 20 needs.
How can counselors use ability patterns with clients?
It enables individuals to assess whether he/she has abilities similar to those of successful people in an occupation.
What instrument is used to assess value patterns and how can value patterns help the counselor with his/her client?
Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire; helps counselors see how the values of their clients match the values that are met or reinforced by a large number of occupations.
What two things were combined to create the Minnesota Occupational Classification System (MOCS)?
Ability patterns and value patterns.
What are two practical uses of the WAT in career counseling?
1.) In job adjustment counseling: assess abilities and needs, and find patterns/discrepancies/issues.
2.) In retirement: find new non-work environments that meet the client's abilities and needs.
What was found in Benbow & Lubinski's study of 13 year old gifted students in regards to WAT, and what do the findings suggest?
The two crucial concepts of WAT, satisfaction & satisfactoriness, can be applied to the educational adjustment and achievement of those students; which suggests that counselors should reinforce the effective behaviors of young adolescents rather than their feelings.
According to Holland's Theory of Types, what two things are an extension of personality?
1.) Career choice
2.) Career adjustment
According to Holland's Theory of Types, how do people express themselves, their interests and values?
Through their work choice and experience.
What two psychological inventories were important in the development of Holland's Theory of Types?
1.) Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI)
2.) Self-Directed Search (SDS)
What do the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and Self-Directed Search (SDS) measure?
Self-perceived competencies and interests, which are an assessment of an individual's personality.
What factors did Holland acknowledge to have an affect on his theoretical model?
Age, gender, social class, intelligence, and education.
According to Holland, how do the individual and environment interact with each other?
Through the development of the six types: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional.
What two concepts does Holland use to describe the interaction between the person and environment?
Congruence and differentiation.
According to Holland's Theory of Types, what is congruence?
The degree of "fit" between a person's code and environment.
T/F. According to Holland's Theory of Types, the more alike a person's code is with his/her environment, the more congruent the relationship.
According to Holland's Theory of Types, what is differentiation?
The difference between the lowest and the highest of the six scores of a profile.
T/F. According to Holland's Theory of Types, a lower score means an individual is differentiated.
According to Holland's Theory of Types, what is consistency?
Refers to the similarity or dissimilarity of the types.
T/F. According to Holland's Theory of Types, the closer types are to each other on Holland's type chart, the more consistent (similar) they are.
According to Holland's Theory of Types, what is identity?
It refers to the clarity and stability of a person's current and future goals.
After completing counseling, what question should the counselor ask to determine whether his/her client has achieved identity?
Does this client have a clear understanding of their career path, are they aware of the resources available to them?
What two purposes do inventories have in Holland's Theory of Types?
1.) Used to develop the theory of types.
2.) Used for individuals in need of career assistant (finding their code makes showing his/her career options easier).
How can a counselor best help undifferentiated types?
By setting a goal; providing them with knowledge on an occupation; working more deeply into values, interests, experiences, and needs.
Holland's Theory of Types: Sensitive to others, genuine, humanistic, perceptive; focus on people and their concerns rather than on things; enjoy closeness with others, sharing feelings, being in groups; solve problems primarily by feeling and intuition.
Holland's Theory of Types: Thoroughly absorbed in their involvements; self-motivated leaders who are talented at organizing, persuading, managing; enjoy power, money, status, and being in charge; solve problems by taking risks.
Holland's Theory of Types: Live primarily "in their orderliness"; have a strong need to feel secure and certain, get things finished, attend to every detail & follow a routine; prefer to work for someone of power than have power; solves problems by appealing to and following rules.
Holland's Theory of Types: Hands-on; enjoy exploring things, fixing things and making things with their hands; express and achieve primarily through their bodies rather than through words, thoughts or feelings; prefer concrete problems; solve problems by doing something physical or hands-on.
Holland's Theory of Types: Live primarily "in their minds"; independent thinkers, intellectually curious, very insightful, logical & persistent when solving a problem; express and achieve primarily through their minds; enjoy complex & abstract mental challenges; solve problems by thinking and analyzing.
Holland's Theory of Types: See new possibilities and want to express selves in creative ways; attuned to perception of color, form, sound, and feelings; prefer to work independently; need fairly unstructured environment; solve problems by creating something new.
Which theorist's work is the Myers-Briggs Theory based on?
Myers-Briggs Types: Prefer to focus on here and now and reality; work with known facts; utilize their five senses to gather info; prefer details; use and perfect learned skills; use standard ways of solving problems.
Myers-Briggs Types: Prefer to focus on future and what might be; understand the big pictures; perceive the possibilities; prefer to rely on hunches; enjoy learning new skills; approach solving problems in new ways.
Myers-Briggs Types: Prefer to make judgments and decisions objectively; consider causes of events and where decisions lead; tend to use their head when making decisions; look at logical consequences of their choices.
Myers-Briggs Types: Prefer to make judgments and decisions subjectively; consider how their decisions impact others; prefer harmony; tend to use their heart when making decisions; allow decisions to be influenced by likes/dislikes; dislike and avoid unpleasant encounters.
Myers-Briggs Types: Prefer to live in a planned, organized, structured way of life; like to get things settled; may make decisions too quickly; focus on one project at a time.
Myers-Briggs Types: Prefer to live in a spontaneous, flexible way, aiming to understand life and adapt to it; adapt well to changing situations; tend to postpone decisions; start too many projects and have difficulty finishing them.
Myers-Briggs Types: Prefer to be expressive and around many people; like variety and action; impatient with long, slow jobs that are done alone; act quickly, but sometimes without thinking it through.
Myers-Briggs Types: Prefer to focus on inner world of concepts and ideas; are reflective, reserved, private; like to be around few people; can work for long periods of time on a project w/o interruptions; think before acting/speaking.
Give a few examples of how the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) can help you as an individual.
1.) Increase your self-awareness
2.) Understand your work style
3.) Understand how you like to make decisions
4.) Extend your strengths
5.) Compensate for weaknesses
6.) Understand other people better
7.) Help you learn more about yourself in the context of your career development.
What is the best way to approach clients in terms of Myers-Briggs types?
Adjust your style of communication for each of the Myers-Briggs types.
What is the primary method used for providing career development to younger students?
Career education programs.
Prior to entering elementary school, children move through the first two of Erikson's eight stages. For those who cope successfully, what do they develop?
Trust and autonomy.
Which of Erikson's stages do elementary school children move through during these years?
Initiative and industry.
Briefly explain Super's Life Span Development Theory.
It described vocational development as the process of developing and implementing a self-concept.
According to Super, what is the most basic of all needs or drives?
According to Super what two concepts should be encouraged in children in the elementary years?
Curiosity and fantasy.
Define exploration according to Super's Life-Span Theory.
The act of searching or examining (a behavior).
Identify four facts about exploration.
1.) Play and playful activities are an expression of exploration.
2.) Can use current or past experiences.
3.) Some exploratory behavior may benefit a child and help him/her learn, though some may just be enjoyment.
4.) Exploratory behavior builds upon exploratory behavior.
What can happen to a child if exploration is thwarted?
He/she can become withdrawn, which can cause difficulty in developing vocational maturity.
What combination of three things makes up Super's self-concept?
Biological factors, social roles, and evaluations of the reactions of others.
T/F. Super's self-concept is only a subjective view of self.
False. It is a subjective AND objective view of self.
Identify five things Super believes the self-concept develops through.
1.) Physical and mental growth.
2.) Observations of work.
3.) Identification with working adults.
4.) General environment.
5.) General experiences.
What are the nine life roles that Super identified?
Son or daughter, student, leisurite, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parents, pensioner.
What three life roles take place during elementary years?
Leisurite, student, and child.
What two life roles prevail during adolescence?
Citizen and worker.
What four life roles come into play as we reach adulthood?
Spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioner.
T/F. Success in one life role has nothing to do with success in another life role (Super).
Super described the interaction between the individual and the world of work through five developmental stages that we go through. Identify them.
Growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and disengagement.
What are the three substages of growth?
Fantasy, interests and capacities.
What are the three substages of exploration? Briefly explain each.
Crystallizing (clarification), specifying (articulate preferences) and implementing (plans to get a job).
What are the three substages of establishment? Briefly explain each.
Stabilizing (settling into a job), consolidating (show competence) and advancing (more responsible, higher pay).
What are the three substages of maintenance? Briefly explain each.
Holding (adapt to changes in a position), updating (new learning) and innovating (contributing to your field).
What are the three substages of disengagement? Briefly explain each.
Decelerating (decreasing responsibilities), retirement planning (financial & other activities) and retirement living (change in activities).
What should counselors do if a child's observations of a key figure are inaccurate?
Correct the misinformation by describing the behavior of other key figures or different behaviors of the misperceived key figure.
What is the primary goal of Super's model in counseling children (four "sub"-goals)?
1.) Help children become concerned about the future.
2.) Help children increase personal control over their lives.
3.) Help children convince themselves to achieve in school and work.
4.) Help children develop competent work habits and attitudes.
According to Erikson, adolescence is a time of...?
Identity and role confusion.
According to Piaget, what processes occur during adolescence?
A gradual process of developing the ability to solve problems and to plan.
What are the five major components of Super's career maturity concept?
1.) Orientation to vocational choice.
2.) Information and planning about a preferred occupation.
3.) Consistency of vocational preference.
4.) Crystallization of traits.
5.) The wisdom of vocational preference.
The Career Development Inventory (CDI) is most concerned with the readiness of individuals to make good choices. What five concepts are used to determine this within individuals?
Career exploration, decision making, world-of-work information, knowledge of the preferred occupational group, and career orientation total.
According to Super's conception of career maturity, what does career planning measure?
How much thought people have given to a variety of information-seeking activities and how much THEY FEEL they know about various aspects of work.
According to Super's conception of career maturity, what does career exploration measure?
An individual's willingness to explore or look for information as well as what information he/she has already acquired.
What is the difference between career planning and career exploration in Super's conception of career maturity?
Career exploration focuses on USING resources.
According to Super's conception of career maturity, what does decision making measure?
The ability to use knowledge and thought in career plans.
According to Super's conception of career maturity, what are the two important components of world-of-work information?
1.) Knowledge of important developmental tasks.
2.) Knowledge of job duties in a few selected occupations and job application behaviors.
According to Super's conception of career maturity, what is career orientation?
A general term encompassing the previous concepts; it gives a summary of all concepts except knowledge of the preferred occupation group and realism.
Which of Erikson's life stages acts as a bridge between the four stages in childhood and the three in adulthood?
Identity vs confusion.
Name the four developmental statuses developed by Vondracek and Marcia and very briefly describe what happens in each.
Diffusion (what happens happens), moratorium (want to explore), foreclosure (follow established paths), achievement (pursuing plans).
Define role salience according to Super.
People differ in terms of the importance they assign to work in their lives.
What three aspects of life roles does the Salience Inventory measure?
Commitment, participation, and value expectations.
What five life roles are measured by Super's Salience Inventory?
3.) Community service
4.) Home and family
5.) Leisure activities
Define maxicycle in terms of Super's adult life stages?
The five major life stages.
Define minicycle in terms of Super's adult life stages?
The growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and disengagement that can occur within any of the stages in the maxicycle.
Define recycling in terms of Super's life stages.
When people re-enter a stage that they have been through before.
A negative term that refers to a situation in which a person has to develop new methods of dealing with a problem that has arisen suddenly and may be disorienting.
What are the four types of transitions identified by Schlossberg? Give an example of each.
1.) Anticipated (graduating high school)
2.) Unanticipated (sudden death of a family member)
3.) Chronic hassles (long commute to work)
4.) Nonevent (a promotion that never happens)
Briefly describe the seven stages of Hopson & Adam's Model of Adult Transitions.
1.) Immobilization (initial shock)
2.) Minimization (denial of situation)
3.) Self-Doubt (doubting ability to provide for self)
4.) Letting Go (accepting what is happening)
5.) Testing Out (gives advice, has ideas to move on)
6.) Search for Meaning (cognitive process of understanding)
7.) Internalization (implies change in values/lifestyle)
Which theory addresses the fact that men and women tend to differ in their occupational aspirations: Super or Gottfredson?
Briefly explain the purpose of Gottfredson's Theory.
It helps explain how people see themselves in terms of society and in terms of their individuality (values, feelings, interests).
According to Gottfredson, what influences cognitive growth?
The relationship between genetics and the environment.
T/F. According to Gottfredson, children of the same age are very similar in term of their ability to learn.
False, they can vary greatly.
T/F. According to Gottfredson, genetic factors have no influence on how a child develops intellectually.
False, genetics have an important influence on intellectual development.
According to Gottfredson, what is self-creation?
A view based on how we are active participants in our relationships between our biological factors and our environmental factors (how they interact with each other as a child grows).
Define circumscription in terms of Gottfredson's theory.
The process of eliminating unacceptable occupational alternatives based primarily on gender and social class.
What are the four stages of cognitive development in circumscription?
1.) Orientation to size and power
2.) Orientation to sex roles
3.) Orientation to social valuation
4.) Orientation to the internal, unique self
Define compromise in terms of Gottfredson's theory.
The process of modifying career choices due to limiting factors (i.e., availability of jobs, having to make trade-offs between sex-types, prestige, and interests).
According to Gottfredson, should a counselor encourage gender-role stereotypes? Why or why not?
No. Not reinforcing gender-role stereotypes will promote an atmosphere in which a wide variety of interests can develop.