Chapter 9 "The Market Revolution" Give Me Liberty!

Marquis de Lafayette
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French nobleman who joined the American Revolutionary cause as a teenager and fought with George Washington's army. His return visit in 1824 to U.S. all twenty-four states using steamboat signified growth of the nation. Devoted to true liberty, he was an abolitionist (US, England, France), saying, "I would have never drawn my sword in the cause of the U.S. if I could have conceived that thereby I was founding a land of slavery." (p. 315)
Image: Marquis de Lafayette
A famous French historian, aristocrat, and diplomat, Alexis de Tocqueville, took a grand tour of America in the 1830s and 1840s and published an astounding account of his observations in a two-volume book called Democracy in America. His detailed observations of American life, economic behavior, and class relations is considered one of the most important primary documents in US history. He wrote of the "holy cult of freedom" in the U.S.: "For 50 years the U.S. inhabitants have been repeatedly and constantly told they are the only religious, enlightened, and free people. They.... have an immensely high opinion of themselves and are not far from believing that they a species apart from the rest of the human race." (p. 315)
Image: Alexis de Tocqueville
Based on the early 1900s mechanical innovation of the steam engine, these steam powered boats could navigate up river, against the current. This innovation radically changed the direction, amount, and time involved in taking goods and raw materials to selling ports, like New York City. According to Alexis de Tocqueville Americans had, "annihilated time and space." Robert Fulton, an engineer, built the first steamboat called the Clermont which navigated UP the Hudson River, in NYC. (p. 317)
Image: Steamboats
The invention and proliferation of the steamboat, in turn, made the partner innovation of the man-made canal into a must-have for states wanting to move goods to selling ports and cities. Completed in 1825, the Erie Canal was a masterful piece of engineering 363-miles long and linking Lake Erie to the Hudson River in NYC. Most of the workers who dug and built the canals were poor Irish immigrants, fueling the growth of Catholic culture in the U.S. The immediate success of the Erie Canal set off a scramble for other states to build their own canals. (p. 317 - 319)
Image: Erie Canal
Immediately after the rise of the big state canal projects of the 1820s, work on railroad lines began to fuel the dawning market revolution. The first commercial railroad was the Baltimore and Ohio line which began in 1828.
The South Carolina Canal and RR stretched from Charlestown to Hamburg. Railroads created the coal and iron dustries and opened the frontier to settlement and linked previously land-locked markets. By 1860, the railroad network had grown to 30,00 miles. (pp319-320)
Image: Railroads
After the printing press, the instantaneous communication made by possible telegraph lines and the touch code developed by artist and amateur scientist, Samuel Morse, revolutionized communication on a massive scale in the 1830s. Morse created a system of electrical impulses that could tap-spell words according to an agree-upon binary code system of dashes and dots, creating a language for letters and numbers. Morse code and the telegraph lines used to convey the code was initially used for business and newspapers. Sound familiar? The first commercial use began in 1844. (p 320)
Image: Telegraph
6 new states enter the union after the War of 1812-1815, including Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Alabama, Mississippi, and Main (cared out of Mass.). This triggered a mass mirgration.
Rich plantation owners and small farers alike migrated together south and west to make Cotton Kingdoms.
Meanwhile the Northwest resembled East w/ small towns and schools while Lower South replicated plantation slavery of Atlantic South states.
The 1840 census showed that 2/5 of the population lived beyond the Appalachian mountain chain. (pp. 322 - 323)
Image: Rise of West
The colonies of East Florida and West Florida remained loyal to the British during the war for American independence, but by the Treaty of Paris in 1783 they returned to Spanish control. After 1783, Americans immigrants moved into West Florida. Adams used the Jackson's military action to present Spain with a demand to either control the inhabitants of East Florida or cede it to the United States. Minister Onís and Secretary Adams reached an agreement whereby Spain ceded East Florida to the United States and renounced all claim to West Florida. Spain received no compensation, but the United States agreed to assume liability for $5 million in damage done by American citizens who rebelled against Spain. Under the Onís-Adams Treaty of 1819 (also called the Transcontinental Treaty and ratified in 1821) the United States and Spain defined the western limits of the Louisiana Purchase and Spain surrendered its claims to the Pacific Northwest. In return, the United States recognized Spanish sovereignty over Texas. (p. 323)
Image: Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
After the invention of the Cotton Gin by Eli Whitney in 1793, the opening of the West, and the growth of steam powered textile mills rapidly producing cotton textiles with water/steam powered spinning and weaving machinery, the economy and slave-labor system in the US transformed on a vast scale. One million slaves were forced into labor in the deep south; slave coffles (chained groups) became a common sight as traders marched them to opening southern states. A domestic slave market emerged after the Constitutional end (Article 1 § 9) to the African slave trade in 1808. By 1820 U.S. produced 170 million lbs. of cotton, up from only 5 million in 1790. Southern planters in the ultra-fertile Mississippi Delta region became some the the richest individuals in the world. (p 326)
Image: Cotton Kingdom
American System of ManufacturesDuring the Market Revolution, the U.S. gradually came to rely on mass production using interchangeable parts that could be rapidly assembled into standardized finished products. Famous for this was Eli Whitney and the manufacture of guns where each person in the assembly line added one part of the gun over and over and passed the gun to the next person in the line. The same system was applied to the hydro-powered textile mills of New England that made use of unskilled, teenaged, female labor to process a textile product for export (out of the cotton produced by slave labor in the South). Also, the Industrial Revolution, including the expansion of railroads mostly exploded in the North East because the South was devoted to the production of raw materials. (pp. 330 - 331)Mill GirlsMany textile factories discovered a source of low-wage labor in the legions of very young, unmarried women who would leave their families and come live in company-run boarding houses at night, work 10 to 12 hours a day, 6 days a week in the mills, and attend company and town-arranged lectures, events, and churches on their time-off. Many young women supported brothers attending colleges and their families farms or businesses back home. They usually left the textile mills in their mid-twenties to marry. One of the most famous was the Lowell Mill - the created an entire system known as the Waltham-Lowell system that brought the female labor source, factory, and a village all together for the production of textiles. This was eventually disrupted by immigration from Ireland and Germany. (pp. 332 - 333)NativismAs Catholic Irish Americans in extreme poverty immigrated in greater numbers in the early to mid-19th century, many low-skilled jobs (railroad and canal building & textile mills) were taken by these immigrants who were escaping brutal British oppression and mass starvation in Ireland. A concern for the Catholicism they brought will them excited the old "anti popery" feelings in established Americans. Nativism describes anti-immigrant sentiments held by Americans toward any new groups whose presence causes a shift in culture, economic life, religion, or politics. The Irish in particular were blamed for crime and political corruption; stereotyped as childlike lazy and slaves of passion. (page 333 - 338)Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)A Marshall Court Supreme Court case that sustained Dartmouth University's original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature (that wanted to absorb a private university into a public one), thereby protecting corporations from domination by state governments. Contracts are sacred in America! (p. 338)Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)Again, the still-Federalist leaning Marshall Court SCOTUS struck down a monopoly granted by the NY legislature to a steamboat company because Hudson Bay was flanked by New York state on one side and the New Jersey shore on the other. This ruling affirmed the federal government's right to regulate Interstate commerce (Article 1 § 8 "commerce clause") and the "supremacy clause," (Article VI § 2). This shows an expansion of federal power. (pp. 338 - 339).Manifest DestinyPhrase coined by NY journalist John O'Sullivan who noted, in 1845, that other people's claims must give way to "our manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole continent which providence has given us for the development of the great experiment in liberty." The idea is an old as the Torah and was invoked by John Winthrop in his 1630 "City on Hill" speech to his wordy shipmates. In the mid-19th century, the concept supported spread of the boarders across the continent. (pp. 339 - 340) [Image credit is from a famous painting by John Gast called "American Progress," (1872). John O'Sullivan's term and Gast's painting are often paired, but they span a thirty year period when the country was expanding rapidly.] pp. 339 - 340TranscendalistA group of free-thinking American intellectuals in the early to mid-19th century who insisted on the primacy of individual judgement, feelings, aesthetic principles, social relationships, religious practices, and economic philosophies (anti-capitalist). They included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Margaret Fuller, Herman Melville, Emily Dickinson, Louisa May Alcott, and Henry David Thoreau who directly inspired to Mahatma Gandhi to civil disobedience. This period also saw the rise of utopian communities. (pp. 340 - 342)Second Great AwakeningThe Second Great Awakening added a strong Christian religious underpinning to the celebration of personal self-improvement, self-reliance, and self-determination of the Transcendentalism. The Reverend Charles Grandison Finney became a national celebrity for his preaching in upstate New York, as The Second Great Awakening democratized American Christianity. Evangelical denominations, including Methodists, Mormons, and Baptists, grew tremendously. Additionally, with respect to the evolution of Reform Judaism, according to Stephan R. Weisman, "Jews did not discard the yearning for an era of redemption. The difference was that - influenced by liberal Protestantism, the Second Great Awakening, and the transcendental movement - Jews determined that they would bring about their own redemption and not expect God to bring it to them." (pp. 342 - 344Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day SaintsReligious sect founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith; it was a product of the intense revivalism of the "burned-over district" of New York. Smith's successor Brigham Young led 15,000 followers to Utah in 1847 to escape persecution. (pp. 344 - 345_Cult of DomesticityReplacing the older idea of "Republican Motherhood," the new concept affirmed that women's "place" was at home where they would sustain the non-market values of love, friendship, and mutual obligation. Women were meant to create private environment shielded from competitive tensions of market economy and they became tied to moral virtue. At this time, the number of children each woman bore greatly decreased, showing women now had conscious decision to limit babies. A new definition of femininity emerged based on values like love, friendship, altruism, art, morality, and mutual social obligation. Women were still expected to be culturally, physically, economically, and politically in total subservience to their husbands and fathers. They were celebrated to the extent that they found freedom in fulfilling their duties within their sphere. (pp. 347 - 348)