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physical change

when a substance changes its size, shape, or state. No new substance is formed

chemical change

occurs when a new substance is formed as the result of a chemical reaction

chemical reaction

occurs anytime a chemical bond is broken or added


the process by which the body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules

digestive system

collection of organs used to break down foods into energy and building material for the body

mechanical digestion

Part of digestion that uses movement and muscles to break down food

chemical digestion

occurs when enzymes and other chemicals break down large food molecules into smaller ones


part of the body where both chemical and mechanical digestion begins


liquid secreted into the mouth that contains mucus and digestive enzymes that start chemical digestion


storage form of glucose in plants


enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches


tube in which food travels from mouth to the stomach


large muscular sac that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food


measure of how acidic or basic a solution is; the scale ranges from below 0 to above 14; solution with pH above 7 is basic and a pH below 7 is acidic

litmus paper

an indicator paper that turns red in an acid and blue in a base


a substance that can soak up H⁺ ions, thus reducing acidity
also called alkaline/basic. Has a pH above 7


any compound that forms H+ ions in solution. Has a pH below 7

stomach acid

solution with a pH of 1.5 to 2.0. It kills bacteria and helps digest your food

small intestine

responsible for most chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients


Fingerlike projections in the small intestine that increase surface area and maximize the absorption of nutrients.

large intestine

the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body

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