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AP World Chapter 10-12 Key Terms

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Middle Ages (also called "Medieval")
The period in western European history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the 15th century.
Gothic
An architectural style developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external supports.
Vikings
Seagoing Scandinavian raiders who disrupted coastal areas of Europe from the 8th to 11th centuries; pushed across the Atlantic to Iceland, Greenland, and North America
Manorialism
System of economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor for access to land
Serfs
Peasant agricultural laborers within the manorial system
Moldboard
Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils.
Three-field system
1/3 of the land left unplanted each year to increase fertility
Clovis
King of the Franks; converted to Christianity circa 496
Carolingians
Royal house of the Franks from the 8th to the 10th centuries
Charles Martel
Carolingian monarch of the Franks; defeated Muslims at Tours in 732
Charlemagne
Carolingian monarch who established a large empire in France and Germany circa 800. (grandson of Charles Martel)
Holy Roman emperors
Rulers in northern Italy and Germany following the breakup of Charlemagne's empire; claimed title of emperor but failed to develop centralized monarchy.
Feudalism
Relationships among the military elite during the Middle Ages; greater lords provided protection to lesser lords in return for military service.
Vassals
Members of the military elite who received land from a lord in return for military service and loyalty.
Capetians
French dynasty ruling from the 10th century; developed a strong feudal monarchy.
William the Conqueror
Invaded England from Normandy (France) in 1066; established tight feudal system and centralized monarchy in England. Impact of his invasion was the transformation of English language to one having a strong Latin base
Magna Carta
Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchical claims; limited the power of English kings.
Parliaments
Bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized the feudal principle that a ruler should consult their vassals
Hundred Years War
Conflict between England and France (1337-1453). France wins; Joan of Arc a major figure in the victory
Pope Urban II
Called First Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim control
St. Clare of Assisi
13th-century founder of a women's monastic order; represented a new spirit of purity and dedication to the Catholic church
Gregory VII
11th-century pope who attempted to free the Catholic church from interference of feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over the practice of lay investiture of bishops.
Peter Abelard
Author of Yes and No; a university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine
St. Bernard of Clairvaux
Emphasized role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.
Thomas Aquinas
Creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and the nature of God. (compare him to the Muslim al-Ghazali)
Scholasticism
Dominant medieval philosophical approach, so called because of its base in the schools or universities; based on the use of logic to resolve theological problems.
Troubadours
Poets in 14th-century southern France; gave a new value to the emotion of love in the Western tradition
Hanseatic League
An organization of north German and Scandinavian cities for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance
Guilds
Associations of workers in the same occupation in a single city; stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeship, guaranteed good workmanship, discouraged innovations; often established franchise within cities.
Black Death
Plague that struck Europe in the 14th century; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure. (thought to have been Bubonic Plague)
Roman Catholic church
Church established in western Europe during the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages with its head being the bishop of Rome or pope
Pope
Meaning papa or father; bishop of Rome and head of Catholic church.
Franks
One of the principal tribes of the Germanic peoples; settled in area of France during the folk migrations of the 4th and 5th centuries
Benedict of Nursia
(480 - 550) Italian abbot who founded the monastery at Monte Cassino and the Benedictine order based on his teachings.
Three estates
The three social groups considered most powerful in Western countries; church, nobles, and urban leaders.
Ferdinand and Isabella
King ______ of Aragon and Queen ______ of Castile married in 1469 to bring the kingdoms of Spain together to complete the reconquest of Spain from the Muslims.
First Crusade
(1096 - 1099) Crusade called by Pope Urban II which captured Jerusalem. (only militarily successful Crusade)
Third Crusade
(1189 - 1192) Crusade led by King Richard the Lionhearted to recapture the city of Jerusalem from Islamic forces led by Saladin; failed in attempt
Fourth Crusade
(1202 - 1204) Crusade which by a strange series of events attacked and sacked Constantinople, causing damage to Byzantine Empire
Francis of Assisi
(1181 - 1226) Son of wealthy merchant; he renounced his wealth and chose a harsh life of poverty; later founded the Holy Order of _________
Investiture
A formal conferring of power to clergy usually with robes or other Christian symbols.
Augustine of Hippo
(354 - 430) Bishop of Hippo who wrote Confessions and City of God, which formed the basis for the doctrine of man's salvation by divine grace for the church.
Roger Bacon
(1214 - 1292) English philosopher and scientist who withdrew from medieval scholasticism and focused on experimental science; influenced later thinkers of the Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution.
Geoffrey Chaucer
English author who wrote The Canterbury Tales, a literary masterpiece written in the vernacular in which pilgrims were going to worship at the shrine of Thomas Becket at Canterbury.
Romanesque
Architectural style which was an adaptation of the Roman basilica and barrel arch form.
Beowulf
Anglo-Saxon epic poem dated to the 8th century which details Anglo-Saxon society through the adventures of the hero _______.
Romance of the Rose
Poem written by Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meung during the 13th century; details the ideas of courtly love
Chivalry
Medieval code used by knights which included the ideals of courage, honor, and the protection of the weak
Indian
Misnomer created by Columbus when referring to indigenous American peoples; implies social and ethnic commonalty that did not exist among Native Americans; still used to describe Native Americans
Toltecs
Nomadic peoples from beyond the northern frontier of sedentary agriculture in Mesoamerica; established capital at Tula after migration into central Mesoamerican plateau; strongly militaristic ethic, including cult of human sacrifice.
Aztecs
The Mexica; one of the nomadic tribes that penetrated into the sedentary zone of the Mesoamerican plateau after the fall of the Toltecs; established empire after 1325 around shores of Lake Texcoco.
Tenochtitlan
Founded circa 1325 on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco; became center of Aztec power.
Huitzilopochtli
Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god
Chinampas
Beds of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rootedin lakes to create "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture used by Aztecs.
Pochteca
Merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long-distance trade in luxury items.
Inca socialism
An interpretation describing Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
Inca
Group of clans (ayllu) centered at Cuzco; created an empire in the Andes during the 15thcentury; also title of the ruler
Split inheritance
Inca practice of ruler descent; all titles and political power went to the successor, but wealth and land remained in the hands of male descendants for support of dead Inca's mummy.
Temple of the Sun
Inca religious center at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas.
Tambos
Way stations used by Incas as inns and storehouses; supply centers for Inca armies; relay points for system of runners used to carry messages.
Mita
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities wereexpected to contribute; an essential part of Inca control.
Quipu
System of knotted strings used by the Incas in place of a writing system; could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records
Hernan Cortés
(1485 - 1547) Led expedition of 600 Spanish soldiers to coast of Mexico in1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitlan.
Anasazi
Native American culture which thrived in the Southwest from 200 to 1200 C.E.;known for cliff dwellings and maize growing
Hopewell
Native American culture which centered in the Ohio valley from 200 to 500 C.E.; known for earthen burial and defensive mounds
"Flowery death"
Death while taking prisoners for the sacrificial knife
Period of the Five Dynasties
Era of continuous warfare (220-589) among the many kingdoms that followed the fall of the Han.
Wendi
Member of prominent northern Chinese family during the Period of the Six Dynasties; with support from northern nomadic peoples established Sui dynasty in 589.
Yangdi
Second Sui ruler; restored Confucian examination system; constructed canal system; assassinated in 618
Li Yuan
Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over empire after assassination of Yangdi; first Tang ruler
Ministry of Public Rites
Administered the examinations for state office during the Tang dynasty.
Jinshi
Title given students who passed the most difficult examinations; became eligible for high office.
Chan Buddhism
Called Zen in Japan; stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular among the elite
Mahayana (Pure Land) Buddhism
Emphasized salvationist aspects of Chinese Buddhism; popular among the masses.
Wuzong
Tang emperor (841-847); persecuted Buddhist monasteries and reduced influence of Buddhism in favor of Confucianism
Yang Guifei
Royal concubine of Tang emperor Xuanzong; introduction of relatives into administration led to revolt.
Khitan nomads
Founded Liao dynasty of Manchuria in 907; remained a threat to Song; very much influenced by Chinese culture.
Zhu Xi
Most prominent neo-Confucian scholar during the Song dynasty; stressed importance of applying philosophical principles to everyday life
Southern Song
Smaller surviving dynasty (1127-1279); presided over one of the greatest cultural reigns in world history
Jurchens
Founders of Qin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced the Song to flee south.
Grand Canal
Canal system begun by Yangdi; joined the Yellow River region to the Yangzi basin.
Junks
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, stern-post rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.
Flying money
Chinese credit instrument that provided vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of a venture; reduced danger of robbery; an early form of currency
Changan
Capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million; larger than any contemporary world city. (modern day Xian—home of terra cotta warriors)
Huangzhou
Capital of later Song; location near East China Sea permitted international commerce; population of more than 1,500,000. (south of Shanghai)
Foot binding
Male-imposed practice to mutilate women's feet in order to reduce size; produced pain and restricted movement; helped to confine women to the household
Bi Sheng
11th-century artisan; devised technique of printing with movable type; made it possible for China to be the most literate civilization of its time.
Li Bo
Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world withphilosophical musings.
Empress Wu
(690 - 705 C.E.) Tang ruler who supported Buddhist establishment; tried to elevate Buddhism to state religion; had multistory statues of Buddha created.
Xuanzong
Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty who reigned from 713 to 755, though he encouraged overexpansion.
Sinfication
Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions; typical of Korea and Japan, less typical of Vietnam.
Neo-Confucians
Revived ancient Confucian teachings in Song era of China; great impact on the dynasties that followed; their emphasis on tradition and hostility to foreign systems made Chinese rulers and bureaucrats less receptive to outside ideas and influences.