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Who is Phyllis Sues?
- 89 years old
- April 4, 1923
- has arthritis and osteoporosis
- does yoga (more advanced poses than some 20 year olds can do)
- 72 years - 1st piano lesson
- 86 - 1st trapeze lesson
What system helps with immune system function?
What are the component of the lymphatic system?
lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, bone marrow, tonsils, Peyer's patches, appendix
What check lymph to make sure there's no microbes?
What are components of lymph nodes?
marcophages and lymphocytes
What do marcophages and lymphocytes do?
kill viruses and bacteria
What is the largest lymph organ?
What does the spleen do?
- provides immune response
- cleans blood of toxins, debris, bacteria, viruses, dead cells
- RBC reserve
Where is the RBC reserve?
What component of the immune system is very important in early stages of life?
Where do T-cell mature?
What are the age-related changes that happen to the thymus glands?
- becomes mostly fatty tissue
Where is bone marrow found?
shaft of long bones
What does bone marrow do?
produce B-cells and T-cells
What are tonsil?
lymphatic tissues that combat against pathogens inhaled
What component of the immune system is suspected to have an important immune function?
What are the general functions of the immune system?
recognition, defense, homeostasis, surveillance
What does the immune system recognize between?
self and pathogen
How does the immune system maintain homeostasis?
removes dead and damaged cells
What does the immune system surveille for?
Which function of the immune system is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) apart of?
What is another name for major histocompatibility complex (MHC)?
human leukocyte antigens (HLAs)
What are human leukocyte antigens (HLAs)?
group of glycoprotein within plasma
Where is human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) located?
plasma membranes of almost all body cells
True or false. MHC proteins are unique to each person.
When is it possible for 2 individuals to have the same set of MHC proteins?
What make it difficult for pathogens to invade?
Why is it problematic for each person to have a unique set of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)?
blood transfusions, organ transplants
What are the functions of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)?
self-identification and antigen-presentation
What part of a virus/bacteria can we use to identify it?
What are the 2 sources of infection?
exogenous and endogenous
Where does an exogenous infection originate?
Where does an endogenous infection originate?
How can a pathogen enter the body?
- exposed tissues/membranes
True or false. In order to get an infection, an individual does not have to be susceptible to the infection.
What are the 2 main types of immunity?
innate (nonspecific) and acquired (specific)
Which type of immunity are physical barriers?
Which type of immunity are mechanical defenses?
Which type of immunity are inflammation and fever?
Which type of immunity is the complement system?
How does inflammation help defend against a pathogen?
can help with blood flow and gets WBCs to site
How does fever help defend against a pathogen?
heats up body to kill pathogen
True or false. A fever is caused by bacteria/virus.
What does the complement system do?
- promotes inflammation
- activates macrophages
- attacks cell membranes
- direct WBCs
What is the primary player in nonspecific immune response?
What type of immunity directly kills invading microbes by phagocytosis?
How does active immunity occur?
individual is exposed to pathogen
Is acquiring a pathogen in the environment natural or artificial immunity?
Is a vaccination natural or artificial immunity?
What humoral immunity?
control of freely circulating pathogen in bloodstream (antibodies)
What is cell-mediated immunity?
control of intracellular pathogens
Are T-cells an example of humoral or cell-mediated immunity?
What are the 3 key players in specific immunity?
- T-lymphocytes (killer T-cells)
- T-helper cells (helper T-cells)
- B-lymphocytes (B-cells)
Where are T-lymphocytes (killer T-cells) produced?
Where do T-lymphocytes (killer T-cells) mature?
Where are T-helper cells (helper T-cells) produced?
Where do T-helper cells (helper T-cells) mature?
Where are B-lymphocytes (B-cells) produced?
Where are B-lymphocytes (B-cells) mature?
What is both produced and matures in bone marrow?
What are antigens?
foreign matter that trigger a specific immune response when detected by body
What executes immune response?
When is specific immunity initiated?
when anti-presenting cells (usually macrophages) take in a foreign particle and partially digest it
What produces antibodies when an antigen is encountered?
What are memory cells?
catalog of all pathogens encountered
What can become memory cells?
B-cells and helper T-cells
What antibodies flood the bloodstream and stick to antigens on any cells that have them?
What are activated by antigen-presenting cells?
What recognizes microorganisms and viruses by antigens on their surface?
What can helper T-cells become?
memory cells or activate B-cells
What do killer T-cells do?
directly kill infected cells
How do killer T-cells directly kill infected cells?
make holes in membranes or by inducing cell death (lysis)
What are the steps of T-cell immune defense mechanism?
1. antigen recognition
2. clonal selection
3. interleukin secretion
What is herd immunity?
- 80%+ of population is immunized
- can help protect others (especially those who can't get vaccinated)
True or false. Immunization are just for infants and children.
True or false. You never outgrow the need for immunizations.
Specific immunizations may be needed as an adult depending on what factors?
age, lifestyle, risk, health conditions, locations of travel, previous vaccination history
What are age-related changes to the immune system?
- changes in skin and mucus membranes
- changes in thymus gland
- decline in T-cell function
- changes in lymph vessels
- increase in autoimmunity
- efficiency declines
- lower resistance to infections
- slower recovery
- less effective secondary immune response
- potentially harmful innate immune response
What are age-related changes that occur in skin and mucus membranes?
- thinner skin
- fewer Langerhans cells
- less mucus production
What are age-related changes that occur in thymus gland?
- decrease in size, activity
- replaced with fatty tissue
- eventually unable to supply blood with enough T-cells
What occurs due to a decline in T-cell function?
decrease in efficiency
What occurs due to changes in lymph vessels?
decreases pumping efficiency
Why is there an increase in autoimmunity as a person ages?
immune cells have greater difficulty distinguishing "self" and "nonself" cells
What can help combat a more effective secondary response?
What are potentially harmful innate immune responses?
- hyperthermia risk
Why is it more difficult to diagnose OAs?
- complex medical history
- increased likelihood of illness
- cognitive issues
- dismissal of symptoms
How do cognitive issues make it more difficult to diagnose OAs?
more difficult to communicate and express symptoms
What are age-related disorders of the immune system?
- rheumatoid arthritis
- grave's disease
- multiple sclerosis
1/3 of all deaths in adults 65+ are from what?
What is bacterial pneumonia?
pneumonia caused by bacteria
How does bacterial pneumonia occur?
bacteria infects alveoli which leads to inflammation and fills with fluid
What are symptoms of bacterial pneumonia?
fever, chest pain, coughing (with or without mucus), confusion
What is the treatment for bacterial pneumonia?
antibiotics and vaccination
Is influenza (flu) a bacteria or virus?
Are antibiotics effective against influenza (flu)?
What are symptoms of influenza (flu)?
fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, chills, fatigue
What is the treatment for influenza (flu)?
antivirals and vaccination
1/3 of all nursing home associated infections are what?
What are symptoms of UTI?
burning sensation when urinating, frequent urge to urinate, pain or pressure in back or lower abdomen, fatigue, fever/chills
What is the treatment for UTI?
Pseudodementia (confusion and hallucinations) can be caused by what?
What are viruses composed of?
genetic material (DNA or RNA) and proteins
True or false. Viruses cannot multiply or exhibit any features of life until it is inside cell.
What does viral multiplication inside of a cell do?
- exhausts cell's resources
- lead to cell's death
What do viruses exploit within a cell?
cell's biochemical machinery to reproduce its own proteins and nucleic acids
How do viruses enter a cell?
through specific protein located on plasma membrane
___% of cases of lupus are in OAs.
What is the male:female ratio of lupus?
Is lupus more prevalent in men or women?
What are the symptoms of lupus in OAs?
arthritis, dry eyes & mouth, lung disease, neuropsychiatric symptoms
What does insidious onset mean?
comes on slowly and does not have obvious symptoms at first
True or false. It is common for lupus to have an insidious onset.
Insidious onset of lupus has a similar presentation to what?
cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, dementia, etc
True or false. There is a risk of toxicity/secondary symptoms from treatment of lupus.
What does HIV stand for?
human immunodeficiency virus
What types of virus is HIV?
What does AIDS stand for?
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
What provokes AIDS?
HIV provokes what?
How is HIV transmitted?
bodily fluids (blood, sperm, genital fluids, breast milk)
~___% of HIV cases are in those 50+.
True or false. HIV develops into AIDS more quickly in OAs.
What are the symptoms of HIV?
fatigue, weakness, weight loss
Why does it take longer for OAs to be diagnosed with HIV?
symptoms of HIV are common in OAs
What is the treatment for HIV?
- no drug can eliminate HIV from body
- truvada (pre-exposure prophylaxis)
True or false. AIDS can induce dementia.
What is another name for AIDS-induce dementia?
AIDS dementia complex
Is decline relatively fast or low in AIDS-induce dementia?
What are symptoms of AIDS-induce dementia?
memory, attention problems, depression, impaired motor function, altered behavior
New HIV infections in adults 50+ have decreased by ___% from 2010-2014.
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