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114 terms

Pathophysiology test 4- Endocrine

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mechanisms of control in the body
Hormonal Control
Neurological control
What is the function of endocrine glands?
secrete hormones into the blood
What is the effect of endocrine glands?
they effect specific target organs
Problems that may occur with endocrine glands:
Hypersecrete
Hyposecrete
Fail to stop secreting
Fail to start secreting
Peexisting conditions
Pituitary tumors
Ratiation therapy of the head and neck
Autoimmune disease
Neurosurgical procedures
Which gland is the master Gland?
Pituitary gland
The Pituitary gland is controled by which part of the brain?
Hypothalamus
What is another name for the pituitary gland?
Hypophysis
Pituitary pathway
Pituitary hormones act as chemical messengers to othe endocrine glands. Only a few hormones have direct action
Pituitary format
have several lobes which produces different hormones
Pituitary Hormones
ACTH, LH , FSH, GH, TSH
TSH
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Thyroid growth and secretion
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic hormone
adrenocortical growth and secretion
STH/ GH
Somatotropin/growth hormone
protein biosynthesis, bone and muscle growth
LH
Lutenizing or Interstitial cell stimulating hormone
Ovulation and Lutenization over Ovary follicle/testosterone production
FSH
Folicle Stimulating Hormone
Pituitary=ACTH=Adrenal gland=
Hydrocortisone
Pituitary=LH=Testicles=
testosterone
Pituitary=FSH=Ovaries=
Estrogen and Progesterone
Pituitary=GH=Liver=
IGF
Pituitary=TSH=Thyroid=
T3 and T4
Prolactin
Mammary Gland, development / milk secretion
ADH Vasopressin
antidiuretic Hormone
Water retention and stimulates vascular smooth muscle
Oxytocin
Uterine contractions and milk injection
Pathological condition that can change normal production of pituitary hormones?
Breast cancer or tumors
May require administration of the target organ hormone
What is the Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH) or non physiological need for ADH?
*Post operative tumor/ cancer producing ADH
*Signs of water retention from kidneys
how is Vasopressin (antidiuretic Hormone) stimulated?
* sympathetic nervous system and osmotic receptors in hypothalamus
* Increased water reabsoption
* Vasoconstriction caused by high dose
Signs of SIADH
Water retention= hyponatremia
Confusion
muscle weakness
Where are ADH and Oxytocin produced?
In the neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus
Where are ADH and Oxytocin secreted?
Axon endings into the blood stream
Signs of diabetes insipidus
Insufficient ADH resulting in polyuria and polydypsia
High Osmolarity
Opposite of SIADH
Insufficient ADH results in?
polyuria and polydypsia
Signs of Hypopituitary
* complete absence of pituitary hormones to decrese in some hormones
* Dwarfism
* Ages 2-7
Hyperpituitary
* Gigantism
* 8' 11'' weight 490 at death at 22 y
Hyperpituitary - giant
* 8' 11'' weight 490 at death at 22 y
Acromegly
Growth hormone excess adults
Prolactinoma effects in women
galactorrhea and menstrual disturbance
Prolactinoma effects in men
loss of libido and erectile dysfunction
Prolactinoma function
supressess normal gonads
Signs of thyroid Hypofunction
* weight gain
* Growth retardation
*Emotionally subdued
*expressionless
* Slow speech and mental processes
* thick skin/ thin hair
* Sensitive to depressants
*Can be postpartum
Diagram: Hypothalamus
first in diagram
Diagram:Thyroid- releasing hormone=
second in diagram
Diagram:pituitary
third in diagram
Diagram: thyroid stimulating hormone
4th in diagram
Diagram:thyroid gland
5th in diagram
Diagram:
thyroxine(T4)
Triiodothymine (T3)
6th in diagram
Diagram:
thyroxine(T4)
Triiodothymine (T3)
goes back to :
hypothalamus
Thyroid- releasing hormone
pituitary
Signs of Hyperthyroidsm
* weight loss
* High basic temp
*Exopthalmous
* Increased appetite
* Enlarged gland (goiter)
* Nrevousness
*palpitation, tachicardia
*Flushed and perspiration
Characteristics related to Hyperthyroidism
Graves's disease
Characteristics related to Hyperthyroidism
Toxic multinodular goiter
Characteristics related to Hyperthyroidism
Thyroid crisis
Characteristics related to Hyperthyroidism
Excess TSH stimulation
Characteristics related to Hyperthyroidism
Thyroiditis
Thyroid Storm
thyrotoxic crisis
Thyroid Storm: thyrothoxic crisis clinical manifestations:
Bulging eyes
confused
Thyroid Storm: thyrothoxic crisis is associated with what disease?
Grave's disease
Thyroid Storm: thyrothoxic crisis is distinguisehd from?
hyperthyroidism
Thyroid Storm: thyrothoxic crisis precipitating factors
?????
What can Thyroid Cancer cause?
Hyper and post op. hypo condition
Hyperparathyroidism
High level of parathyroid hormones
What does Hyperparathyroidism cause?
elevated calcium
What does Hypoparathyroidism cause?
lower calcium
Hypoparathyroidism
low level of parathyroid hormones
is Hyperparathyroidism or Hypoparathyroidism that requires medical intervention?
Hypoparathyroidism
what is the medication for high level of parathyroidism (PTH)?
Calcitonin and phosphorous
What does high level of parathyroidism (PTH) cause?
Hypercalcemia- may be life threatening
Hypercalcemia crisis is related to:
Malignancy associated hypercalcemia (MAH)
Hypercalcemia crisis is related to:
primary hyperparathyroidism
when does Hypocalcemic crisis happen?
Following surgery for hyperparathyroid tumors
How is Hypocalcemic crisis treated?
I.V. calcium while monitored
what is the medication for low level of parathyroidism (PTH)?
magnesium meds but also must decrease phosphorous levels
What does low level of parathyroidism (PTH) cause?
High phosphorous level
What problems does low level of parathyroidism (PTH) cause?
muscle tetany
Where are adrenal glands located?
on top of kidney
What are the parts of the adrenal gland ?
medulla and cortex
each secrete different hormones
Which hormones are secreted by the adrenal medulla?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
adrenal medulla hormones are also called?
catecholamines
adrenal medulla hormones called catecholamine stimulates what system ?
sympathetis nervous system
what do we give epinephine
(adrenalin) as ?
Beta agonist
Which hormones are secreted by the adrenal cortex?
3S MAG
Sugar- Glucocorticoids hydrocortisone
Salt - Mineralocorticoids- aldosterone
Sex- Androgen- Men
where is the adrenal cortex?
in the adrenal gland
what is the function of the adrenal cortex?
sinthesize and secrete hormones
Which 2 hormones are sinthesized and secreted by the adrenal cortex?
Glucocorticoids and Mineralocorticoids
Which disease is associated with adrenal cortex hyposecretion?
Addison's disease
When a patient is having adrenal cortex hyposecretion, what is treatment?
Replacement of hormones
which hormones are replaced during adrenal cortex hyposecretion treatment?
aldosterone, hydrocortisone and testosterone
When a patient is having adrenal cortex hyposecretion, what should be increased for treatment?
Na intake
Addison's disease signs
*Generalized skin pigmentation (caucasion)
*deposition in the palmer skin creases, nails and gums
Addison's disease signs
deposition in the palmer skin creases, nails and gums
She was treated many years ago for pulmonary TB. What are the other causes of this condition?
???
Signs and symptoms of Adrenal crisis
Cortisol defficiency
Signs and symptoms of Adrenal crisis
Hypoglycemia
Signs and symptoms of Adrenal crisis
Hypercalcemia
Signs and symptoms of Adrenal crisis
Decreased gastric mobility, vascular tone
Signs and symptoms of Adrenal crisis
CHH DV
Which disease is associated with adrenal cortex hypersecretion?
Cushing's Disease
Signs and symptoms of Adrenal Cortex Hypersecretion
Weakness
loss libido
moon face
oily skin
What could be a possible cause of adrenal cortex hypersecretion?
overmedication with exogenous sources of hormone
Signs and symptoms of Adrenal Cortex Hypersecretion
Hyperplasia of cortex
Adrenal Cortex Hypersecretion affects which hormones?
cortisone and androgen
Aldesterone Deficiency with Adrenal crisis
HHHE
Hyperkalemia
Hyponatremia
Hypovolemia
Elevated BUN
What does Glucocorticoids influence?
Glucose metabolism
What is Glucocorticoids stimulated by?
ACTH
What is Glucocorticoids functions?
Provides anti inflamatory response
and suppresses allergic reactions
Glucocorticoids can also be related to ?
elevated blood sugar
what is a Glucocorticoids sources?
Exogenous
what is the Glucocorticoids sources used for?
anti inflamatory (arthritis)
Immunosupressant (lupus)
what does too much or too long cases of Glucocorticoids cause?
Adrenal atrophy
high blood sugar
mask infection
inhibts healing
osteoporosis
peptic ulcer
growth retardation
infertility due to feedback to pituitary
what can Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) influence?
Electrolytes amd metabolism
what can Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) cause?
sodium retention and K excretion
Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) secreted in response to?
angiotensin II or elevated K levels
What is Florinef?
Combination of gluco and mineralocort
Hypoglycemia (TIRED)
- an abnormal decrease of blood in the sugar
T-achycardia
I-rritability
R-estless
E-xcessive Hunger
D-iaphoresis/ Depression
Adrenal Gland Hormones (SSS)
S-ugar (Glucocorticoids)
S-alt (Mineralcorticoids)
S-ex (Androgens)