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Terms in this set (39)

Preparation for interaction/affiliation
Suggests that mimicry more likely when there is some sort of affiliative bond with the other
• We will tend to mimic liked, but not disliked, others
Reflexive imitation processes
• Merely thinking about (or observing) a particular action can make that action more likely to occur in YOU
• This is formally known as the principle of ideomotor action

-principle of ideomotor action-> the phenomenon whereby merely thinking about a behavior makes its actual performance likely
-based on the fact that the brain regions responsible for perception overlap with those responsible for action. When applied to mimicry, it means that when we see others behave in a particular way, the idea of that behavior is brought to mind and makes us more likely to behave that way ourselves
-we reflexively mimic others to prepare for interaction with them, and that interaction is likely to go more smoothly if we establish some rapport
-The tendency to automatically adopt the behaviors of members of different social categories holds true only for those with a positive attitude toward the group in question-- that is, those who might be expected to want to interact with members of the category and have the interaction go well

Accents (Giles & Powesland)
Will naturally start to acquire accents around you even unintentionally
Speech rates/rhythm (Webb)
Facial expressions (Meltzoff & Moore)
Moods (Neumann & Strack)
Posture (Bernieri)
Mannerisms/idiosyncratic movements (Bavelas)
i. Basic paradigm - large request that is intentionally large (rejected), then you ask a small request (more likely to be granted) - opposite of foot in the door effect
ii. Cialdini et al (1975)
1. Control Group 1 (Large Request Only) asked to spend 2 hours per week as a peer counselor to juvenile delinquent children for 2 years - all refused (0% compromise)
2. Control Group 2 (Medium Request Only) asked to escort a group of juvenile delinquents to the zoo, as a one time thing, most refused (17% compliance)
3. Experimental Group (Large to relatively smaller request), first asked to be peer counselors (large request), and then asked to escort children to the zoo (medium request), (50% compliance)
iii. Many studies support its effectiveness; evidence suggests it is more effective than the foot in the door effect
iv. Why does it work?
1. The norm of reciprocity (mutual negotiation, now it's my turn to secede by meeting in the middle)
a. Effect only works when the SAME PERSON makes both requests

-General compliance technique whereby people feel compelled to respond to a concession with one of their own. First, you ask someone for a very large favor that he or she will certainly refuse, and then you follow that request with one for a more modest favor that you are really interested in receiving.
-Idea is that the drop in size of the request will be seen as a concession, a concession that the target of the request must match to honor the norm of reciprocity
-known as the door-in-the-face technique (reciprocal concessions technique)
ii. Two classic studies by Freedman & Fraser (1966)
1. Study 1 (The "ugly sign" study)
a. Ask a small request (sign a petition on driver safety)
b. Then ask them to put an ugly sign on their front lawn about being a safe driver
c. If you initially signed the petition, 55% compliance on the sign, but if you weren't asked about the petition first, only 17% compliance
iii. Why the foot in the door effect works
1. The first thing shaped your perception
2. The effect is wiped out if you think someone is trying to manipulate you, the effect goes away
3. Only works if you're not suspicious to being set up

-If requests can be crafted to appeal to a person's self-image, the likelihood of compliance can be increased
-foot-in-the-door technique-> a compliance technique in which a person makes an initial small request with which nearly everyone complies, followed by a larger request involving the real behavior of interest
-idea that the initial agreement to the small request will lead to a change in the individual's self-image as someone who does this sort of thing or who contributes to such causes. The person then has a reason for agreeing to the subsequent, larger request: "It's just who I am"
-Study: Participants asked if they would be willing to have a large billboard sign bearing "Drive Carefully' installed on their lawn for week. Only 17 percent agreed. Another group was asked if they'd be willing to have a small sticker "be a safe driver" placed in their windows, to which nearly all agreed. Two weeks later, when this group was asked to display the billboard on their lawn, 76 percent agreed