MNGT 3100 Final

5.0 (2 reviews)
1 / 104
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (104)
1. division of labor, and each position should be filled by an expert
2. hierarchy of authority
3. written rules and regulations
4. managers should conduct business in an impersonal way and maintain an appropriate social distance between themselves and subordinates
5. employment based on technical qualifications
integrationthe degree to which the various subunits must work together in a coordinated fashionOrganizational life cycle1. birth 2. youth (growth and expansion) 3. midlife (growth and stability) 4. maturity (stability perhaps evolving into decline)functional (U form) design- unitary - members and units in the organization are grouped into functional departments such as marketing and production - none of the functional areas can survive without the others - promotes centralization - used in smaller organizationsconglomerate (H form) design- holding - organization made up of a set of unrelated businesses - results from unrelated diversification and is based loosely on the product form of departmentalization - disadvantages: complexity of holding diverse and unrelated businessesdivisional (M form) design- multidivisional - based on multiple businesses in related areas operating within a larger organizational framework - strategy of related diversification - example: Walt Disney Company (theme parks, movies, merchandising units all related) - pros: opportunities for coordination and shared resources - could outperform large U and all H designsmatrix design- based on two overlapping bases of departmentalization - project managers head a project group composed of representatives from functional departments - a multiple-command structure results when an individual reports to a functional superior and to one or more project managers - strong pressure from environment, large amounts of information needing to be processed, or pressure for shared resources are when matrixes work bestmatrix pros and consPros - enhance flexibility - highly motivated team members - opportunity to learn new skills - decentralized Cons - uncertain about reporting relationships - groupthink - more time required to coordinate task-related activitiescommon international designA: simplest, relies on separate international division - B: extension of location and departmentalization to international settings (Ford) - C: an extension of product departmentalization, with each product manager being responsible for all product-related activities regardless of location -D: extension of the multidivisional structure with branches located in various foreign markets (most typical of larger multinational corporations (Nestlé))forces for change- external: in the organization's general and task environments - internal: top management revises the organization's strategy, other internal pressuresPlanned changechange that is designed and implemented in an orderly and timely fashion in anticipation of future eventsreactive changea piecemeal response to circumstances as they developLewin modelunfreezing, implementing change, refreezingunfreezingindividuals who will be affected by the impending change must be led to recognize why the change is necessaryrefreezingreinforcing and supporting the new wayswhat is the biggest cause of resistance to change?uncertainty! also: threatened self-interests, different perceptions, feelings of losshow to overcome resistance to change1. Education and communication 2. Participation and involvement 3. Facilitation and support 4. forcefield analysis3 areas of organizational change:- organizational structure and design - technology and operations - peopleorganizational structure and design- job design - departmentalization - reporting relationships - authority distribution - coordination mechanisms - line-staff structure - overall design - culture - HR managmenttechnology and operationsInformation technology - equipment - work processes - work sequences - control systems - enterprise resource planning (ERP)people- abilities and skills - performance - perceptions - expectations - attitudes - valuesforms of innovation- radical - incremental - technical - managerial - product - processradical innovationa new product, service, or technology that completely replaces an existing oneincremental innovationa new product, service, or technology that modifies an existing onetechnological innovationchanges in the physical appearance or performance of a product or service, or the physical processes through which a product/ service is manufacturedmanagerial innovationchanges in the management process by which products and services are conceived, built, and delivered to customers - do not necessarily affect the physical appearance or performance of products or services directlyproduct innovationchanges in the physical characteristics or performance of existing products or services or the creation of brand-new products or servicesprocess innovationschanges in the way products/ services are manufactured, created, or distributed - ex: using robots to build thingspsychological contractthe overall set of expectations held by an individual with respect to what s/he will contribute to the organization and what the organization will provide in return - does not exist in writingperson-job fitthe extent to which the contributions made by the individual match the inducements offered by the organizationwhat are the big 5 personality traits?- agreeableness - conscientiousness - neuroticism - extraversion - opennessagreeablenessa person's ability to get along with others high <-----> lowconscientiousnessthe number of things a person can effectively work on at one time high <-----> lowneuroticismdegree of emotional instability or stability less neurotic <-----> more neuroticextraversiona person's comfort level with relationships more extroversion <-----> more introversionopennessA person's rigidity of beliefs and range of interests more open <-----> less openMyers-Briggs Frameworkbased on the work of Carl Jung - extraversion (E) vs introversion (I) - sensing (S) vs intuition (N) - thinking (T) vs feeling (F) - judging (J) vs perceiving (P)locus of controlthe extent to which people believe that their behavior has a real effect on what happens to themself-efficacya person's beliefs about her/his capabilities to perform a taskmachiavellianismused to describe behavior directed at gaining power and controlling the behavior of othersself-esteemthe extent to which a person believes that s/he is a worthwihle and deserving individualrisk propensitythe degree to which one is willing to take chances and make risky decisionsemotional intelligencethe extent to which people are self-aware, can manage their emotions, can motivate themselves, express empathy for others, and possess social skillsattitudescomplexes of beliefs and feelings that people have about specific ideas, situations, or other people - 3 components: affective, cognitive, and intentionalorganizational commitmentan attitude that reflects a person's identification with and attachment to the organization itselfperceptionthe set of processes through which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information about the environmentstereotypingthe process of categorizing or labeling people on the basis of a single attributeattributiona mechanism through which we observe behavior and then attribute causes to itstressa person's response to strong stimulushow to manage stress- exercise - relaxation - time management - support groups/ therapycreativitythe ability of a person to generate new ideas or to conceive of new perspectives on existing ideascreative process:preparation, incubation, insight, verificationabsenteeismoccurs when a person does not show up for workturnoverwhen people quit their jobsorganizational citizenshipthe behavior of individuals that makes a positive overall contribution to the organizationmotivationthe set of forces that cause people to behave in certain waysMaslow's hierarchy of needsfrom bottom to top: - pyhsiology - security - belongingness - esteem self-actualizationtwo-factor theory of motivationmotivation factors: cause satisfaction and are related to the work content - hygiene factors: cause dissatisfaction and are related to the work environmentmotivation factorsachievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, growthhygiene factorssupervisors, working conditions, interpersonal relations, pay and security, company policies and administrationprocess perspectivefocuses on why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained these goalsexpectancy theorysuggests that motivation depends on two things: how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get itequity theorypeople are motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they receive for performanceself-determination theorya theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivationgoal-setting theoryassumes that behavior is a result of conscious goals and intentions - can be used to implement both expectancy and equity theory conceptsreward systemthe formal and informal mechanisms by which employee performance is defined, evaluated, and rewardedleadership- both a process and a property - the use of non-coercive influence to shape the group or organization's goals, motivate behavior toward the achievement of those goals, and help define group or organizational culturelegitimate powerpower granted through the organizational hierarchyreward powerthe power to give or withhold rewardscoercive powerthe power to force compliance by means of psychological, emotional, or physical threatreferent powerabstract, based on identification, imitation, loyalty, or charismaexpert powerderived from information or expertisesituational approach to leadershipassume that appropriate leader behavior varies from one situation to anotherLPC theoryleast preferred co-worker, classified as either task oriented or relationship oriented. puts the right person in the right situationpath-goal theorysuggests that the primary functions of a leader are to make valued or desired rewards available in the workplace and to clarify for the subordinate the kinds of behavior that will lead to goal accomplishment and valued rewards - leader should clarify the paths to goal attainmentVroom's decision tree- concerns itself with only a single aspect of leader behavior: subordinate participation in decision making - the degree to which subordinates should be encouraged to participate in decision making depends on the characteristics of the situationleader-member exchange (LMX)stresses the importance of variable relationships between supervisors and each of their subordinates - each superior-subordinate pair is referred to as a "vertical dyad"charismatic leadershipassumes that charisma is an individual characteristic of leadershiptransformational leadershipleadership that goes beyond ordinary expectations by transmitting a sense of mission, stimulating learning experiences, and inspiring new ways of thinkingpolitical behavioractivities carried out for the specific purpose of acquiring, developing, and using power and other resources to obtain one's preferred outcomesRole of communication in management- Interpersonal: interact with supervisors, subordinates, peers, and others outside the organization -Informational: focus specifically on acquiring and disseminating information - Decisional: require managers to seek out information to use in making decisions and then communicate those decisions to othersnonverbal communicationa communication exchange that does not use words or uses words to carry more meaning than the strict definition of the words themselvesgrapevinean informal communication network among people in an organizationconflicta disagreement among two or more individuals, groups, or organizations - certain kinds of conflict can be beneficial (ex: disagree over the best location for new factory, forces each party to more thoroughly study and defend her/his preference)informal leadera person who engages in leadership activities but whose right to do so has not been formally recognized - carries out task specialist and socioemotional roles - supplements the formal leader's functionsnormsstandards of behavior that the group or team accepts for and expects of its memberstypes of teams- problem solving team - management team - work team - virtual team - quality circleproblem solving teammost popular type of team; comprises knowledge workers who gather to solve a specific problem and then disbandmanagement teamconsists mainly of managers from various functions like sales and production; coordinates work among other teamswork teamAn increasingly popular type of team; work teams are responsible for the daily work of the organization; when empowered, they are self-managed teamsvirtual teamA newer type of work team whose members interact in a virtual arena; members enter and leave the network as needed and may take turns serving as leaderquality circleDeclining in popularity, comprising workers and supervisors, meet intermittently to discuss workplace problemsmanagement by wandering aroundmanagers keep in touch with what is going on by wandering around and talking with people of all levels of the organizationinformal communication methodsgrapevine and management by walking aroundformal communicationcommunication that takes place within prescribed organizational work arrangements