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Chapter 5: Fats, Oils, and Other Lipids
Terms in this set (55)
A category of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen compounds that are insoluble in water.
Having an aversion to water
The basic unit of triglycerides and phospholipids (chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms with an acid group at one end)
Saturated Fatty Acids
As fatty acid that has all of its carbons bound with hydrogen
What are the three types of lipids found in foods and in your body?
1. Triglycerides (fats) 2. Phospholipids 3. Sterols
There are more than ___ types of fatty acids
20 : They can vary by the length of the chain, whether the carbons have a single or a double bond between then, and the total number of bonds.
There are three types of fatty acids
Saturated Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated Fatty Acids, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Unsaturated fatty acids are ____ at room temperature
fats that contain mostly saturated fatty acids
monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)
A fatty acid that has one double bond
unsaturated fatty acid
Fats that contain mostly unsaturated fatty acids
polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)
A fatty acid with two or more double bonds; found in nuts and vegetable oils such as safflower, sunflower, and soybean, and in fatty fish.
essential fatty acids
The two polyunsaturated fatty acids that the body cannot ale and therefore must be eaten in foods: linoleum acid and alpha-linolenic acid
A polyunsaturated essential fatty acid; party of the omega-6 fatty acid family
A polyunsaturated essential fatty acid; part of the omega 3 fatty acid family
three fatty acids that are attached to a glycerol backbone
the three-carbon backbone of a triglyceride
the common name for triglyceride
fats that are liquid at room temperature
lipids made up of two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to a glycerol backbone
A compound that keeps two incompatible substances, such as oil and water, mixed together.
A lipid that contains your connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen
A substance that is converted into or leads to the formation of another substance
a glycerol with only two attached fatty acids
a glycerol with only one attached fatty acid
A substance produced by the liver, store in the gallbladder, and secreted into the small intestine that emulsifies fat into smaller globules, allowing enzymes to break the fat down
small transport carrier in the intestine that enable fatty acids and other compounds to be absorbed
water fluid that circulates through the body in lymph vessels and eventually enters the blood
capsule-shaped transport carriers that enable fat and cholesterol to travel through the lymph and blood
a type of lipoprotein that carries digested fat and other lipids through the lymph system into the blood
very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)
A lipoprotein that delivers fat made in the liver to the tissues. VLDL remnants are covered into LDLs.
low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
A lipoprotein that deposits cholesterol in the walls of the arteries. Because this can lead to heart disease, LDL is referred to as the bad cholesterol carrier.
high-density protein (HDL)
A lipoprotein that removes cholesterol from the tissues and delivers it to the liver to be used as part of bile and/or to be excreted from the body. Because of this, it is known as the good cholesterol carrier.
Hormonelike substances in the body. Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes are all eicosanoids.
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
two omega 3 fatty acids that are heart healthy
Addling hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid to make it more saturated and solid at room temperatures
trans fatty acids
substances that result from the hydrogenating of an unsaturated fatty acid, causing a reconfiguring of some of its double bonds. A small amount of trans fatty acids occur naturally in animal foods.
Substance that contains mostly trans fatty acids
the decomposition, or spoiling or fats through oxidation
substances that replace added fat in foods by providing the creamy properties of fat for fewer cajoles and fewer total fat grams
Permeant damage to the heart muscles that results from a sudden lack of oxygen-rich blood
A condition caused by a lack of oxygen to the brain that could result in paralysis and possibly death
narrowing of the coronary arteries do to buildup of debris along the artery walls.
The hardened buildup of cholesterol-laden foam cells, platelets, cellular waste products, and calcium in the arteries that results in atherosclerosis.
normal blood pressure
Less that 120mm HG (systolic- the top number) and less than 80mm HG (diastolic -the bottom number). Referred to as 120/80/
high blood pressure
naturally occurring sterols found in plants.
lower LDL cholesterol levels by competing with cholesterol for absorption in the intestinal tract.
About 95 percent of the lipids in foods and in the human body are triglycerides.
Gram for gram, fats provide more than 2x the energy of carbohydrate
Other Functions of Fat:
1) Shock absorbers
Pads of fat surround vital internal organs
Fat pads under the skin insulate the body from extremes of temperature
3) Cell membranes
Lipids are a component of cell membranes
Fat contributes to satiety
Nuts are healthy because they....
Provide essential fatty acids
Low in saturated fat
High in fiber, vegetable protein, and other valuable nutrients, including vitamin E
High in phytochemicals that act as antioxidants
How much fat should you eat?
DRI: 20-35% of total daily calories should come from fat.
Linoleic acid: 5-10% of total daily calories
Alpha-linolenic acid: 0.6-1.2% of total daily calories
What are the best food sources of fats?
Sources of unsaturated fats:
Vegetable oils (soybean, corn, and canola)
Soybeans, walnuts, flaxseeds, wheat germ
Limit sources of saturated fats:
Animal sources: fatty meats, whole-milk dairy products, skin on poultry
Plant sources: coconut, palm, palm kernal oils
Provides 20%-35% of its calories from fat
Keeps saturated fat and trans fat (solid fats) intake below 10% of caloric intake
Substitutes monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat for saturated and trans fat
NOTE: instead of, NOT in addition to
Two Fish Meals Per Week (particularly fatty fish)
8 oz fatty fish/week = 0.5 grams/day
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