APUSH Period 7
Terms in this set (113)
The movement in the late 1800s to increase democracy in America by curbing the power of the corporation. It fought to end corruption in government and business, and worked to bring equal rights of women and other groups that had been left behind during the industrial revolution.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
- created Federal Trade Commission (investigate companies for unfair trade practices
reformer who worked to prohibit child labor and to improve conditions for female workers
(WW) 1913 , independent agency in the federal executive branch. Established under the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, the Federal Reserve System ("Fed") is the central bank of the United States. One of the most powerful agencies in the government, it makes and administers policy for national credit and monetary policies. The Fed supervises and regulates bank functions across the country, thus maintaining a sound and stable banking industry, able to deal with a wide range of domestic and international financial demands
(FDR) , , President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life. RELIEF, RECOVERY, AND REFORM
National Recovery Admin
1933: June 13th, Congress passed the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
Federal Writers Project
Federal government project to fund written work and support writers during the Great Depression. It was part of the Works Progress Administration, a New Deal program. It was one of a group of New Deal arts programs known collectively as Federal One.
"Kingfish" Rep. senator of LA; pushed "Share Our Wealth" program and make "Every Man a King' at the expense of the wealthy; assassinated
social security administration
an independent agency of the United States federal government that administers Social Security, a social insurance program consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors' benefits. To qualify for these benefits, most American workers pay Social Security taxes on their earnings; future benefits are based on the employees' contributions.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A federal guarantee of savings bank deposits initially of up to $2500, raised to $5000 in 1934, and frequently thereafter; continues today with a limit of $100,000
• Christianity needed to be adjuste
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
plays written and performed primarily by Jews in Yiddish The range of Yiddish theatre is broad: operetta, musical comedy, and satiric or nostalgic revues; melodrama; naturalist drama; expressionist and modernist plays. Satiric Plays most popular
A twentieth-century American artist whose stark, precisely realistic paintings often convey a mood of solitude and isolation within common-place urban settings. Among his best-known forks are Early Sunday Morning and Nighthawks.
(HT) , Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
A system that sets limits on how many immigrants from various countries a nation will admit each year
(WW) , movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. The program stimulated emigration for Mexico.
Argentinian. First Prosecutor of the ICC. Charged Omar al-Bashir with genocide, war crimes, and crimes agains humanity. Was criticized for his decision. Lost the trial.
The historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that the frontier was the key factor in the development of American democracy and institutions; he maintained that the frontier served as a "safety valve" during periods of economic crisis.
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Secretary of Treasury under President Harding, Coolidge and Hoover, who instituted a Republican policy of reduced government spending, lower taxes to the wealthy and higher tariffs
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
A policy of avoiding political or military involvement with other countries
Washington Naval Conf.
1921 - president harding invited delegates from Europe and Japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect China's independence
1932, Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria
4 laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents
placing private property in the custody of an officer of the law
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
Arranged the purchase of Alaska from Russia, for less than 2 cents per acre
Meetings of the Pan-American Union, an international organization for cooperation on trade and other issues. They were first introduced by James G. Blaine of Maine in order to establish closer ties between the United States and its southern neighbors.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890
(n) extreme and emotional nationalism, or chauvinism, often characterized by an aggressive foreign policy, accompanied by an eagerness to wage war. Iran and Israel's extreme jingoism creates fear for its inhabitants.
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
This Amendment was drafter by Henry M. Teller which declared that the US had no desire for control in Cuba & pledged the US would leave the island alone.
..., Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743)
These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos.
(WMc) 1) Cuba makes no treaty with others if in endangers independence 2) can't borrow money if they can't pay back 3)US can get involved with Cuba affairs 4)US has navy there
..., Was the Secretary of State in 1899; dispatched the Open Door Notes to keep the countries that had spheres of influence in China from taking over China and closing the doors on trade between China and the U.S.
"Big Stick" diplomacy
The policy held by Teddy Roosevelt in foreign affairs. The "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them.
(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic
Treaty of Portsmouth
(1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin Island, but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more.
(TR) , 1907 Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
In 1908 the United States and Japan signed this agreement saying they would both honor the territorial possessions of the respective countries that were in the Pacific Ocean, and they would also uphold China's Open Door Policy.
Henry Cabot Lodge
..., Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations
(WW) 1916, Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.
John J Pershing
Commander of American Expeditionary Force of over 1 million troops who insisted his soldiers fight as independent units so US would have independent role in shaping the peace
a management theory using efficiency experts to examine each work operations and find ways to minimize the time needed to complete it
A government printed ballot of uniform size and shape to be cast in secret that was adopted by many states around 1890 in order to reduce the voting fraud associated with party printed ballots cast in public.
He was another muckraking journalist that worked for McClure's. He is known for exposing corruption in major American cities. His first installment- "Tweed Days in St. Louis" may have been the "first muckraking article". He also wrote an autobiography that Dr. Ferdon liked called the Autobiography of Lincoln Steffens. He said after returning from Communist Russia, "I've seen the future and it works."
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
Allows voters to petition to propose legislation &then submit it for a vote by qualified voters
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
(TR) run for office may circulate a petition and get the required number signatures, voters a more direct role in govt
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages. Repealed by 21st amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
La Follete in 1900 was elected and introduced a state wide program of prgressive reform this plan lowered railroad rates, the result was the increased railroad traffic which helped both railroad owners and customers.
Lochner v NY
Court rejected the law regulating work hours for bakers, saying it was a law attempting to regulate employment terms. First in many of Court going against Progressive legislation; also they began to use 14th Amendment to protect individual rights.
Muller v OR
1908 - Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
Anthracite Coal Mines Strike
a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania
President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed
(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers.
This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods.
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
Newlands Reclamation Act
Act of 1901 that set up the Bureau of Reclamation to develop irrigable lands; responsible for such major projects as Boulder (later Hoover) Dam on the Nevada-Arizona line, Roosevelt Dam in Arizona, and Elephant Butte Dam and Arrowrock Dam in New Mexico.
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Bull Moose Party
The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was "fit as a bull moose..."). His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.
Roosevelt's domestic platform during the 1912 election accepting the power of trusts and proposing a more powerful government to regulate them
1910, gave right to prevent new rates if challenged in courts, communication now regulate directly by the Interstate Commerce Commission
Payne-Aldrich Tariff 1909
This tariff, weakened by Senate member which it is partly named for, was the tariff bill created for Taft by the special session of congress he called. Feeling that it was too weak, but not skillful enough to simply not sign it, he made it into law as he knew he could not get more, and so appeared to the public to support the weak measure
1913, lowered tariff, substantially reduced import fees. Lost tax revenue would be replaced with an income tax that was implemented with the 16th amendment.
Federal Reserve Act
a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
1921 - founded American Birth Control League; which became Planned Parenthood in the 1940s. Advocated birth control awareness.
a fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
The ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will
A journalists who was the head of the Committee of Public Information. He helped the anti-German movement as well as inspired patriotism in America during the war.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act
(WH) 1922, This tariff raised the tax on imports to its heights level- 60%
U.S. attorney general and a member of Harding's corrupt "Ohio Gang" who was forced to resign in administration scandals
Charles Evans Hughs
Secratary of State that proposed a 10 year pause on constuction of major new warships at the Washington Conference
Teapot Dome Scandal
A government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
An approach to labor relations in which companies meet some of their workers' needs without prompting by unions, thus preventing strikes and keeping productivity high
F. Scott Fitzgerald
a novelist and chronicler of the jazz age. his wife, zelda and he were the "couple" of the decade but hit bottom during the depression. his noval THE GREAT GATSBY is considered a masterpiece about a gangster's pursuit of an unattainable rich girl.
The Waste Land
..., Born in Chicago middle class. moved to Harlem in 1923 and began playing at the cotton club. Composer, pianist and band leader. Most influential figures in jazz.
African American leader durin the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
1925 court case argued by Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan in which the issue of teaching evolution in public schools was debated
Bill passed by Congress to enforce the language of the 18th Amendment. This bill made the manufacture and distribution of alcohol illegal within the borders of the United States.
Amendment which ended the Prohibition of alcohol in the US, repealing the 18th amendment
5-Power Naval Treaty
agreement emerging from the Washington Disarmament Conference that reduced naval strength and established a ratio of warships among the major ship building
a 1922 treaty affirming the sovereignty and territorial integrity of China as per the Open Door Policy.
treaty that outlawed war
This treaty of 1928 denounced war between countries when it was used for the purpose of handling relations between countries. Signed by Frank Kellogg of the US and Aristicie Briand from France on Aug 27, 1928, it sought to bring about a change in the way countries dealt with foreign policy.
Dawes Plan (1924)
It was proposed by Charles Dawes and attempted to facilitate German reparation payments. By loaning $200 million in gold bullion to Germany, the U.S. and its other Allies hoped to stabilize the German economy so that the Germans could pay off their debts.
(FDR) , change of dates for start of presidential/congressional terms
Group of WWI veterans who were supposed to be given economic relief from the government due to their involvement in the war. However, in 1932 the deadline for the veterans was pushed back by the government to a latter date thus causing the group to march onto Washington to demand their money. Excessive force was used to disband these protesters, and because they were veterans and heroes of this country, Hoover's popularity plummeted because of it.
(HH) 1930 , charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliatio, HIGHEST EVER
John Maynard Keynes
English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)
AKA Indian Reorganization Act, was passed on June 18, 1934. It is significant b/c US policy became one of self-determination rather than assimilation for Native Americans. One of the important effects of this act was to allow the tribes to create their own governments on the reservations, -policy of "cultural relativism"--people should accept all cultures; no one culture is superior
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
Reciprocal Trade Agreements
Congress passed the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act in 1934. Designed to lower the tariff, it aimed at both relief and recovery. Secretary of State Hull succeeded in negotiating pacts with 21 countries by the end of 1939. These pacts were essentially trade agreements that stated if the United States lowered its tariff, then the other country would do the same. With the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act, the president was empowered to lower existing rates by as much as 50% provided that the other country involved would do the same. During these years of trade agreements, U.S. foreign trade increased dramatically. The act paved the way for the American-led free-trade international economic system that took shape after WWII.
1934. Senate committee led by South Dakota Senator Gerald Nye to investigate why America became involved in WWI. Theory that big business had conspired to have America enter WWI so that they could make money selling war materials. Called bankers and arms producers "merchants of death."
America First Committee
A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They argued that WWI had not made the US safe, so why fight in this war; that the nation was in a Great Depression; that two oceans kept us safe; that American business interests were not a good enough reason to fight, that this was not our war, so why should American boys die.
The speech was an act of condemnation of Japan's invasion of China in 1937 and called for Japan to be quarantined. FDR backed off the aggressive stance after criticism, but it showed that he was moving the country slowly out of isolationism.
He led the opposition of utilities companies to competition from the federally funded Tennessee Valley Authority. His criticism of Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt led to his dark-horse victory at the 1940 Republican Party presidential convention. After a vigorous campaign, he won only 10 states but received more than 22 million popular votes, the largest number received by a Republican to that time.
First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.