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24 terms

Psychology Chapter 6: Memory

STUDY
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memory
the ability to store and retrieve information over time
encoding
the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory
storage
the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored
elaborative encoding
the process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory.
visual imagery encoding
the process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures
organizational encoding
the process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items
sensory memory
a type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less
iconic memory
a fast-decaying store of visual information
echoic memory
a fast-decaying store of auditory information
short-term memory
a type of storage that holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds bu less than a minure
rehearsal
the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it
chunking
combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory
working memory
active maintenance of information in short-term storage
long-term memory
a type of storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years
semantic judgments
act of elaborative encoding: judgments that require participants to think about the meaning of the word (ex. is hat a type of clothing?) (offers much better memory for words)
rhyme judgments
act of elaborative encoding: judgments that require participants to think about the sound of a word (does hat rhyme with cat?)
visual judgments
act of elaborative encoding: judgments that require participants to think about the appearance of the words (is HAT written in uppercase or lowercase?)
True
True or False: Imagery encoding can substantially improve memory
survival encoding condition
participants asked to imagine they were stranded in the grasslands of a foreign land, condition where participants remembered more words than moving or pleasantness tasks
hippocampal region
the region that acts as a kind of "index" that links together all of these otherwise separate bits and pieces so that we remember them as one memory
anterograde amnesia
the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store to the long-term store
retrograde amnesia
the inability to retrieve information hat was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or operation
consolidation
the process by which memories become stable in the brain
reconsolidation
memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, requiring them to become consolidated again.