elongation, it occurs in plants that live only one year, they have apical meristems, and it increases plant exposure to light.
Which of these ions is most likely to be leached from the soil?
- charged, soil tends to be negatively charged so the negatively charged ions tend to run off
what are the properties of secondary growth?
grow in thickness, has cork cambium and vascular cambium, lateral meristem, increases vascular flow, and provides structural support
what is a property of both secondary and primary growth?
they both occur in plants that live more than one year
what does the zone of cell division include?
apical meristem and adds new cells
what does the zone of elongation include?
it is the place where cells elongate and push the root tip further into the soil
what does the zone of differentiation include?
also known as the zone of maturation, where cells can differentiate into distinct cell types and can become vascular, dermal, or ground tissue types.
trees grow well in___ conditions
wet or warm
tree rings are small in diameter when conditions are _____
cold or dry
Water and ions can travel into the root by moving between cells or along cell walls is called what___
Water and ions can travel into the root by moving from cell to cell via plamsodesmata
Even water and ions that are traveling by the apoplastic route must eventually pass through cells, because of a waxy waterproof band called the___
In roots the _____ forces water and solutes to pass through the plasma membranes of _____ cells before entering the _____.
casparian strips, endodermis, xylem
_____ provide(s) the major force for the movement of water and solutes from roots to leaves.
what causes water molecules to stick together?
hydrogen bonds (cohesion)
what are guard cells?
cells that control the rate of water loss from the leaf
what is the mesophyll?
cells where most of the evaporation of water occurs in the leaf
what is the purpose of the lower and upper epidermis?
they are cells with a coating that prevent evaporation of water
what is a vein or vascular bundle's purpose?
a group of different cell types involved in long distance transport of water and nutrients
Symplastic pathways involves___
moving water via plasmodesmata, and can allow water to enter vacuoles in cells
apoplastic flow involves_____
involves water flow outside the protoplast, consists of a porous mixture of hydrophilic polymers
neither apoplastic or symplastic pathways involve
the passage of multiple cell membranes
what is the order of events that occur after water exits the xylem?
exits the xylem and enters the walls of the surrounding cells, then it spreads as a film on the surface of mesophyll cells, then it diffuses through the air spaces of the leaf, then it exits through the stomata
Plants must always compromise between ________ and __________.
maximizing photosynthesis and water loss
mycorrhiza and plants have what type of relationship?
mutualistic associations between plant roots and fungi.
The proton pump _____
uses the energy stored in ATP to produce a hydrogen ion gradient
A plant cell placed in a solution with a lower water potential will _____
lose water and plasmolyze.
Which of the following is a correct statement about a difference between xylem and phloem transport?
Xylem sap moves up; phloem sap moves up or down.
A student is performing a chemical analysis of xylem sap. This student should not expect to find much a) water b) nitrogen c) potassium d) sugar e) phosphorus.
sugar. phloem transports sugar
what is the driving force of guttation?
Xerophytes minimize water loss by _____
using the CAM pathway. they open the stomata at night to prevent heavy water loss
In addition to transporting sugar, the phloem also _____.
conduct electrical impulses, transport plant RNA throughout the plant, transport viral RNA, and transports proteins
soil particles are
Phosphorus is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
it is a macro. 0.2% H₂PO₄⁻, HPO₄²⁻, component of nucleic acids. phospholipids, ATP , and several coenzymes
Chlorine is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Cl⁻ micro. 0.001% required for H₂O-splitting step of photosynthesis, function in H₂O balance
Sulfur is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
SO₄²⁻ 0.1% macro component of proteins and coenzymes
Manganese is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Mn²⁺ micro 0.005% active in formation of amino acids, activates some enzyme; required for water-splitting step of photosynthesis
Iron is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Fe³⁺, Fe²⁺ 0.01% micro component of cytochrome; activates some enzymes
Magnesium is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Mg²⁺ 0.2% macro component of chlorophyll; activates many enzymes
Boron is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
H₂BO₃⁻ 0.002% micro cofactor in chlorophyll synthesis; may be involved in carbohydrate transport and nucleic acid synthesis; role in cell wall function
Calcium is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Ca²⁺ 0.05% macro important in the formation and stability of cell walls and in maintenance of membrane structure and permeability; activates some enzymes; regulates many responses of cells to stimuli
nitrogen is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
NO₃⁻,NH₄⁺ 1.5% Macro component of nucleic acids, proteins, hormones, chlorophyll, and coenzymes
Zinc is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Zn²⁺, 0.002% micro active in formation of chlorophyll; activates some enzymes
Potassium is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
K⁺ 1.0% macro cofactor that functions in protein synthesis; major solute functioning in H₂O balance; operation of stomata
Nickel is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Ni²⁺, 0.001% micro cofactor for an enzyme functioning in nitrogen metabolism
Hydrogen is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
H₂O, 6% macro MAJOR COMPONENTS OF PLANTS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Copper is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
Cu⁺, Cu²⁺ 0.001% mirco component o f many redox and lignin-biosyntheitc enzymes
Carbon is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
CO₂ macro 45% major component of plants organic compounds
oxygen is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
CO₂ macro 45% major component of plants organic compounds
Molybdenum is a ______ . What is its function for plants?
MoO₄²⁻ micro 0.0001% essential for symbiotic relationship with nitrogen fixing bacteria, cofactor in nitrate reduction
How do bacteria help plant growth?
they secrete chemicals to help stimulate growth, the help plants acquire nitrogen, make nutrients more available, and absorb toxic materials
all plants have what
they have mycorrihzal relationships and a rhizobacteria
What is nitrogen's role in plants?
plant roots cannot directly absorb N₂ from the atmosphere, it is a macronutirent, without it plants turn yellow, it is a component of nucleic acids, proteins, nitrogen fixing bacteria turn N₂ into NH₃, plant roots can only absorb nitrogen in the form of ammonium ions NH₄⁺ or nitrate ions NO₃⁻
What is topsoil?
It is a mixture of rock fragments, humus, and living organisms
Which of the following is a symptom of magnesium deficiency in plants?
what are the four types of tissues?
nervous, connective, muscular, and epithelial
what are the five different types of epithelial cells?
_____ is secreted by the _____ and acts to emulsify _____ in the _____
bile... liver.. fats... small intestine
Most carbon dioxide is carried from the body tissues to the lungs _____.
as carbonate ions
What is the function of a circulatory system?
It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all cells in the body.
Why do the circulatory systems of land vertebrates have separate circuits to the lungs and to the rest of the body?
The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body.
The pulmonary circulation is the ____pressure circuit to the lung, whereas the systemic circulation is the ____pressure circuit to the rest of the body.
pulmonary is lower systemic circulation is higher
What is the function of the left ventricle?
It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.
The systolic blood pressure is the peak blood pressure, resulting from contraction of the_____.
Blood pressure is highest in the__
___ have the thinnest walls
Carbon dioxide enters the blood at the _____.
head, forelimbs, abdominal organs, and hind limbs
What is the way blood pumps through the body?
rt. ventricle, pulmonary artery, capillaries of lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta, head/feet, superior and inferior vena cava, and then to the right atrium into the right ventricle
the smaller an animal is the____ it's SA to volume ratio is and the ____ it looses heat
Vitamin B₁(thiamine) is a ___ soluble vitamin
found in pork,beans coenzyme used to remove CO₂ from organic compounds without it we would have nerve disorders (beriberi)
vitamin B₂ (riboflavin) is ____ soluble vitamin
dairy products component of coenzymes FAD and FMN skin lesions cracks around mouth
Niacin (B₃) is a ___soluble vitamin
nuts meats in NAD⁺ and NADP⁺ skin and gi lesions nervous disorders (too much leads to liver damage)