66 terms

AP psych ch. 2 review!

humanistic psychologists
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
operational definition
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables.
purpose of a random sample
it fairly represents a population bc each member has an equal chance of inclusion
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
mood congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
next-in-line effect
we focus on our own performance and often fail to process the last person's words
semantic encoding
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection; cerebellum
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"; hippocampus
branching structures that receive signals from other cells
fiber that carries signals away from the soma to other cells
myelin sheath
insulating material that encases some axons; speeds up neural transmission because the impulse is able to avoid all the gates in the myelin covered part of the axon so they can jump from one node of ranvier to the next
glial cells
nanny cells; protect & support neuron
action potential
neuron impulse; voltage spike that travels along axon; Na and K ions reside inside and outside neuron; positively charged when neuron is sent; Na goes out, K goes in
resting period
refractory period
during action potential, charge of the cell becomes temporarily more negative
neurons either fire or they don't; like a gun
excitatory/inhibitory signals
signals to the neuron's dendrites and cell body that either "push the neuron's accelerator" or "push the brake"
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or the cell body of the receiving neuron
synaptic gap
gap at synapse
electrically charged atoms
process through which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed by the axon terminals
what has to happen for the action potential to take place
threshold must be reached and excitatory messages/signals must out number the inhibitory messages
-70 mV
neurons' charge at resting potential
explain agonists & antagonists
molecules that mimic neurotransmitters either to excite (ago-)or inhibit (anta-)
explain reflexes (ex:knee jerk)
message(hand on stove)-->spinal cord-->(back to) hand (message doesn't have to go all the way to the brain)
explain neural networks
interconnected clusters of neurons in the CNS
sensory neurons (found in PNS) travel in which direction
to brain and spinal cord (motor neurons take messages back OUT)
long term potentiation
increase in neurons firing potential
chemical messengers released by a neuron over the synapse
neurotransmitter; muscle movement
neurotransmitters; pain or exercise
neurotransmitter; too little of them=seizures, tremors, insomnia
neurotransmitter; mood, hunger, sleep, arousal
neurotransmitter; movement, learning, attention, emotion
cause of multiple sclerosis
linked to degeneration of myelin sheath
brain, spinal cord
mostly just nerves; divided into somatic NS and autonomic NS
somatic NS
nerves to voluntary muscles, sensory receptors; divided into afferent (incoming) nerves, and efferent (outgoing) nerves
autonomic NS
nerves to heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, glands; divided into sympathetic(arouses) and parasympathetic(calms down, conserves bodily resources)
Lashley; destroying a piece of the brain to learn about its function
PET scan
depicts level of activity of the brain areas by measuring the brains construction of GLUCOSE
monitors activity in the brain, not concerned with WHERE activity takes place (basically just a print out of brain waves)
hypothalamus FUNCTION
feeding, fighting, fleeing, fornicating; addictive drug cravings are linked to reward centers located in or near it
cerebellum FUNCTION
coordinates fine muscle movement, balance
medulla FUNCTION
regulates unconscious functions such as breathing and circulation
4 lobes FUNCTION
frontal: primary motor cortex, holds personality and mood, damage to it=no problem solving
parietal: primary somatosensory cortex; receives info for touch and body position
temporal: primary auditory cortex, receives info from opposite ear
occipital: primary visual cortex
association areas
3/4 of cerebral cortex; most extensive regions, higher functions
relay center for cortex; distributes incoming sensory signals, except smell
reticular formation
names for the HINDBRAIN
reptillian brain, lower brain
brain stem parts
RAS: alertness
PONS: coordinates movements
MEDULLA: breathing, circulation
THALAMUS: directs messages
CEREBELLUM: little brain, fine muscle movements, balance
teen brain: last part to develop?
frontal lobe; prefrontal cortex (planning, decision making)
RIGHT brain
controls left side of body, spacial relations, perception, fantasy, art, music, nonverbal thoughts, think in pictures, shapes, forms, figurative language, left visual field; thinks in images, WHOLE
LEFT brain
controls right side of body, speech, primary language center, logical thinking, calculations, math, literal language, right visual field; thinks in sentences, words
when reading aloud..STEPS
thalamus, visual cortex, angular gyrus, Wernicke's area, Broca's area, motor cortex
endocrine system
the body's chemical communication system; transmits info through chemical messengers called HORMONES; endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into blood stream
pituitary gland FUNCTION
mostly growth. also called the master gland; bc it signals other glands to secrete their hormones
in moments of danger, adrenal glands release..
epinephrine and nonepinephrine
primary sex glands of males
primary sex glands of females
general male sex hormone
thyroid gland
related to lethargic feelings and weight gain