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historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
purpose of a random sample
it fairly represents a population bc each member has an equal chance of inclusion
mood congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
we focus on our own performance and often fail to process the last person's words
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"; hippocampus
insulating material that encases some axons; speeds up neural transmission because the impulse is able to avoid all the gates in the myelin covered part of the axon so they can jump from one node of ranvier to the next
neuron impulse; voltage spike that travels along axon; Na and K ions reside inside and outside neuron; positively charged when neuron is sent; Na goes out, K goes in
signals to the neuron's dendrites and cell body that either "push the neuron's accelerator" or "push the brake"
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or the cell body of the receiving neuron
what has to happen for the action potential to take place
threshold must be reached and excitatory messages/signals must out number the inhibitory messages
explain agonists & antagonists
molecules that mimic neurotransmitters either to excite (ago-)or inhibit (anta-)
explain reflexes (ex:knee jerk)
message(hand on stove)-->spinal cord-->(back to) hand (message doesn't have to go all the way to the brain)
sensory neurons (found in PNS) travel in which direction
to brain and spinal cord (motor neurons take messages back OUT)
nerves to voluntary muscles, sensory receptors; divided into afferent (incoming) nerves, and efferent (outgoing) nerves
nerves to heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, glands; divided into sympathetic(arouses) and parasympathetic(calms down, conserves bodily resources)
depicts level of activity of the brain areas by measuring the brains construction of GLUCOSE
monitors activity in the brain, not concerned with WHERE activity takes place (basically just a print out of brain waves)
feeding, fighting, fleeing, fornicating; addictive drug cravings are linked to reward centers located in or near it
4 lobes FUNCTION
frontal: primary motor cortex, holds personality and mood, damage to it=no problem solving
parietal: primary somatosensory cortex; receives info for touch and body position
temporal: primary auditory cortex, receives info from opposite ear
occipital: primary visual cortex
brain stem parts
PONS: coordinates movements
MEDULLA: breathing, circulation
THALAMUS: directs messages
CEREBELLUM: little brain, fine muscle movements, balance
controls left side of body, spacial relations, perception, fantasy, art, music, nonverbal thoughts, think in pictures, shapes, forms, figurative language, left visual field; thinks in images, WHOLE
controls right side of body, speech, primary language center, logical thinking, calculations, math, literal language, right visual field; thinks in sentences, words
when reading aloud..STEPS
thalamus, visual cortex, angular gyrus, Wernicke's area, Broca's area, motor cortex
the body's chemical communication system; transmits info through chemical messengers called HORMONES; endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into blood stream
pituitary gland FUNCTION
mostly growth. also called the master gland; bc it signals other glands to secrete their hormones
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