A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single type of crop, year after year
Molasses fermented becomes rum.
New England became the main producer because of the easy access to molasses
Became the first cheap distilled liquor in England
It gave settlers the right to tax local Native Americans or to make them work(mainly in plantations). In exchange, these settlers were supposed to protect the Native American people and convert them to Christianity
a relationship between countries in which they rely on one another for resources, goods, or services
Rigid class system
A social class system where there is no mobility. A person remains in the same class their entire life.
The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.
a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
The term used in Spanish and Portuguese colonies to describe someone of mixed African and European descent.
People of mixed Native American and African descent. Lowest tier of social class, with no rights whatsoever.
A priest who spoke out against the mistreatment of native peoples under the care of the church. He persuaded Spain to pass the New Law of the Indes in 1542 saying that native peoples must be paid for their work.
Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.
- great capital city of the Aztecs that was built on a lake and every building andfarm was built atop lake beds made dry by damming.
Council of the Indies
The institution responsible for supervising Spain's colonies in the Americas from 1524 to the early eighteenth century, when it lost all but judicial responsibilites.