80 terms

chapter 8

The amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional
classification of joints.
All joints permit some degree of movement, even if very slight.
Hinge joints permit movement in only two planes.
Synovial fluid is a viscous material that is derived by filtration from blood.
The articular surfaces of synovial joints play a minimal role in joint stability.
The major role of ligaments at synovial joints is to help direct movement and restrict
undesirable movement.
The only movement allowed between the first two cervical vertebrae is flexion.
Movement at the hip joint does not have as wide a range of motion as at the shoulder joint.
A person who has been diagnosed with a sprained ankle has an injury to the ligaments that
attach to that joint.
A movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned from posterior to
anterior is supination.
The wrist joint can exhibit adduction and eversion movements.
Cruciate ligaments are important ligaments that stabilize all ball-and-socket joints.
Flexion of the ankle so that the superior aspect of the foot approaches the shin is called
The gripping of the trochlea by the trochlear notch constitutes the "hinge" for the elbow joint.
The ligamentum teres represents a very important stabilizing ligament for the hip joint.
The structural classification of joints is based on the composition of the binding material and
the presence or absence of a joint cavity.
Synovial fluid contains phagocytic cells that protect the cavity from invasion by microbes or
other debris.
A person who has been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis would be suffering loss of the
synovial fluids.
A ball-and-socket joint is a multiaxial joint.
Bending of the tip of the finger exhibits flexion.
Dislocations in the TMJ almost always dislocate posteriorly with the mandibular condyles
ending up in the infratemporal fossa.
Symphyses are synarthrotic joints designed for strength with flexibility.
A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.
prevent hyperextension of the knee
The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________.
provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints
Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to ________.
A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of
movement is a ________.
On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?
Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where
friction develops are called ________.
Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________.
________ are cartilaginous joints.
The gliding motion of the wrist is accomplished because of the ________ joint
cruciate ligaments
The ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the
movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called ________.
Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of ________.
All synovial joints are freely movable.
In the classification of joints, which of the following is true?
permit essentially no movement
Synarthrotic joints ________.
sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
Fibrous joints are classified as ________.
hyaline cartilage
In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ________.
It contains hyaluronic acid.
Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following
statements is true about this fluid?
cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones
Which of the following statements defines synchondroses?
semilunar cartilage pads
What are menisci?
Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.
Which of the following is a true statement regarding gliding movements?
What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane
The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the ________.
The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ________ synovial joint.
uniaxial rotation
Movement allowed in a pivot joint is known as ________.
rare because of the ligament reinforcement
Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ________.
Which ligament holds the radius to the ulna at the proximal end?
the patellar ligament
Which ligament of the knee initiates the knee-jerk reflex when tapped?
medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate
Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is
(are) damaged as a result?
Which of the following conditions is generally considered a noninflammatory type of
excessive blood levels of uric acid deposited as crystals in the soft tissue joints
What can cause gouty arthritis?
plantar flexion
Pointing the toes is an example of ________.
The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.
Which of the following is a true statement?
the hip and shoulder
Multiaxial joints of the body include ________.
hinge joint
Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are
characteristics of what type of joint?
lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements
Extracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee include ________.
Joints develop in parallel with bones.
Which of the following is a correct statement about development of joints?
the radius and ulna along its length
An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is ________.
They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.
Which of the following statements best describes angular movements?
The trapezium of the carpal bone and the thumb's metacarpal
Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Name the two bones of the hand that
articulate to form a saddle joint.
act as friction-reducing structures
Tendon sheaths ________.
tendon sheath
Which of the following is not a part of the synovial joint?
number of bones in the joint
Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to keeping the articular surfaces of
diarthroses in contact?
Turning the foot medially at the ankle would be called ________.
Moving your jaw forward, causing an underbite, is called ________.
A ________ is a fluid-filled sac a tendon slides over.
The joint between the frontal and parietal bones is called a ________ joint.
Once long bone growth in length is complete, the cartilage of the epiphyseal plates
ossifies to become a permanent synostosis.
Why are epiphyseal plates considered temporary joints?
Using the functional classification, a freely movable joint would be called a ________ joint.
The hip joint, like the shoulder joint, is a ________ joint.
Partial dislocation of a joint is called a ________.
The type of joint between the carpal and the first metacarpal is a ________ joint.
articular cartilage, a joint cavity, an articular capsule, synovial fluid, and reinforcing
Synovial joints have five major features. What are they?
Exercise does not prevent arthritis, but it strengthens muscles that in turn support and
stabilize joints.
Often people who exercise prudently seem to have fewer bouts with osteoarthritis. Will
exercise prevent arthritis? If so, how?
hinge, flexion
Bending the elbow: ________, ________.
pivot, rotation
Turning head side to side: ________, ________.
ball and socket, adduction
Lowering your arm to your side: ________, ________.
plane, inversion
Turning the sole of foot medially: ________, ________.
The thumb possesses a saddle joint where each articular surface has both a concave and
a convex surface.
While the fingers can exhibit flexion and extension and other angular motions, the thumb has
much greater freedom. Why?
The ends of each bone are covered with hyaline cartilage that is continuous with the
synovial membrane enclosing the joint. Synovial fluid fills the space between the articular
cartilage. Outside the synovial membrane there is a very tough, fibrous capsule that prevents the
synovial membrane from bulging out as pressure is applied to the ends of the bones.
Describe a typical synovial joint.