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Blood is a __________________ tissue that consists of cells and cell fragments surrounded by a ____________

liquid connective tissue
liquid extracellular matrix

The extracellular matrix of blood is also called ________________

blood plasma

___________ bathes body cells, and is constantly renewed by blood.

interstitial fluid

Carbon dioxide and other wastes move from ____________ to _________ to blood.

body cells
interstitial fluid

Name the 3 general functions of blood and describe each.

1. transportation-gases, blood transports oxygen from lungs to cells of the body and carbon dioxide from body cells to lungs, nutrients from the GI tract, hormones, heat and waste products to various organs for elimination.

2. Regulation-circulating blood helps maintain homeostasis of all body fluids, helps regulate pH through use of buffers, adjust body temperature, ossmotic pressure influences water content in cells

3. protection-blood can clot, white blood cells prevent against disease by carrying phagocytosis

blood transports oxygen from the lungs, nutrition from the GI tract, which diffuse across _________ into the _________ and then into __________.

intersitial fluid
body cells

blood is _________ and more _____ then water.

viscous (thicker)

________% of nutrients from GI tract absorbed into blood goes to the liver.


Blood carries hormones from _____________ to other body cells


Blood buffers are mostly made up of _____________ and ___________.

proteins and HCO3

Describe vasodilation and vasconstriction.

push blood to where it is needed
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, particularly the large arteries, small arterioles, and veins.

Vasodilation refers to the widening of blood vessels[1] resulting from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, particularly in the large arteries, smaller arterioles and large veins.

____________ are interconnecting networks of tiniest blood vessels.


What 2 components make up whole blood?

1. blood plasma(a watery liquid extracellular matrix that contains dissolved substances)
2. formed elements(cells and cell fragments)

blood is about ____% formed elements and _______%blood plasma.


99% of formed elements are cells called_____


__________ and _______ occupy less then 1% of formed elements in blood.

WBC, platelets

__________ are less dense then RBC, but more dense then blood plasma.

WBC, platlets

blood plasma is about 90% ______ and 8% ____(most of which are proteins). Principle solutes include ________(name several)

-albumins, globulins, fibrinogen, nutrients, vitamins, hormones, waste product

True or False. Capillaries are very leaky?


Proteins like __________ are to big to leak out of blood vessels-this creates _______________.

osmotic pressure (suction effect)

_______ makes most of proteins found in capillaries.


If you didn't have proteins like albumen in blood vessels what would happen?

all the fluid blood would leak out and your body would run out of blood.

Cells access nutrients, hormones, oxygen exchange, and fluid plasma through ______________.


_________(liver cells) synthesize most plasma proteins.


Name 4 plasma proteins. Besides proteins, what other solutes are in blood plasma?

Proteins=albumins, globulins, gamma globulins (antibodies), fibrinogen

other solutes=electrolytes, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, gases and waste products

___________ is the liquid portion of blood and is a solvent that absorbs, transports, and releases heat


_______ are the smallest and most numberous of proteins in blood.


________ are the largest proteins in blood


_________ are a large protein in blood and plays an essential role in blood clotting


_____________ are responsible for osmotic pressure, major contributor to blood viscosity, transports hormones fatty acids and calcium, helps regulate pH

plasma proteins

What 3 things does blood plasma contain?

proteins, solutes, and water

What 3 things are in the formed elements of blood?

RBC, WBC, Platelets

The extracellular matrix in blood is fluid which is called ___________

blood plasma

What is the shape of a healthy red blood cell?

biconcave disc

RBC and WBC are _____ cells, platelets are cell ______.


Name 5 types of WBC's

neurtrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils

What are the 2 different categories of WBC's and name the cells in each.

1. Granular leukocytes
2. Agranular Leukocytes
-T and B lymphocytes and natural killer (NK)

The formation of red blood cells is called ___________________

Hemopoiesis or hemotopoiesis

__________is the primary site for hemopoesis in adults

red bone marrow-found inbetween trabicula of long flat bones, and the epipysis of long bones

________ cells have the ability to develop into many different types of cells.

pluripotent stem cells

abundance of WBC types bases on response to_______________.

invading pathogens or foreign antigens

Stem Cells In bone marrow __________ and ___________ into cells that give rise to blood cells.

-reproduce themselves
-proliferate and differentiate

_______________do not divide once they leave red bone marrow
-exception is lymphocytes

Formed elements

What 2 types of stem cells are produced by Pluripotent stem cells?

1. myeloid stem cells
2. Lymphoid stem cells

_________________ give rise to red blood cells, platelets, monocytes, neurophils, eosinophils and basophils. ________________ give rise to lymphocytes

myeloid stem cells
Lymphoid stem cells

Hemopoietic growth factors do what?

regulate differentiation and proliferation

name 4 hemopoietic growth factors.

Colony-Stimulating factors (CSFs)-WBCs

If kidneys detect low oxygen levels, they secrete _________________ to make more RBCs


Colony-Stimulating factors=______


Red blood cells carry an oxegen-carrying protein called _________________.


Red blood cells are strong and flexible allowing them to squeeze through _______ without rupturing.


True/False. Red blood cells have a nucleus


True/False. Red blood cells can reproduce


_____________ in plasmas membrane of RBCs responsible for ABO and Rh blood groups


Do red blood cells have mitochondria?

No, they don't use oxygen

1 Hemoglobin carries ___ oxygen molecules (O2)?


RBC's generate ATP how?

anaerobically-(without oxygen)

hemoglobin contain protein called ______ which is composed of 4 polypeptide chains, and a nonprotein pigment called _______


_________ is located in the center of a heme.

Iron ion

___________ transports 23% of total carbon dioxide.


blood flowing though capillaries picks up carbon dioxide, which combines with ___________ in the globin.

amino acids

nitric oxide (NO) binds to _________, which releases NO causing ____________.


___________=(O2 bound to iron ion). ____________=(CO2)


___________ is mostly dissolved in plasma as HCO3. (bicarbonate ion)


_____________ is mostly carried by Hb some. dissolved in plasma


RBC only live about _____ days


RBC are removed from circulation and destroyed by _________________ in the liver and spleen.

fixed phagocytic macrophanges

Breakdown products of RBC are recycled
___________ and ___________ are reused.

globin's amino acids and iron

_____________ends up as yellow pigment uronilin in urine
.......or brown pigment stercobilin in feces

non-iron heme

when iron is removed from heme, the non iron portion of heme is converted to biliverdin and then into ________(yellow orange pigment).


Bilirubin enters the blood and is transported to ___________

the liver-then sm intestine, then large intestine

In the larger intestine bilirubin is converted into _____________. Some of the ______ is absorbed back into the blood as a yellow pigment called _________.


where is bile (waste material) made?

the liver

Most of the urobilinogen is eliminated in feces in the form of a brown pigment called __________.


Erythropoesis is what?

Production of RBCs

Erythropoesis starts in the red bone marrow with a precursor cell called ______________.


proerythroblast divides several tomes producing cells that begin to synthesize ________.


cells near the end of the proerythroblast development ejects its nucleus and becomes a __________.


if you have a lot of reticulocytes=_______________.

low oxygen and low RBC's

decrease O2 is sensed by the
_________________= increase in ____________, which increase RBC's


Reticulocytes...develop into mature RBC within _______ days


hypoxia(low oxygen) stimulates release of _________________.


True/False. White blood cells have a nucleus and other oragnelles.


WBC's do not contain ________ unlike RBC's


Describe a Neutrophil

WBC-respond most quickly to tissue damage by bacteria
-uses lysozymes, strong oxidants

WBC's are catagorized as ___________ or _________ based on staining.

granular or agranular

Immune response, and long term immunity= what type of WBC?


_______________ is an increase in WBC's
due to normal protective response to invaders, strenuous exercise, anesthesia and surgery.


___________ is a decreases WBC' never beneficial (ex: AIDS). General function to combat invaders by phagocytosis or immune responses


Many WBC's leave the bloodstream which is called __________, in which they roll along the __________, stick to it, and then squeeze between _______________.

endolithial cells

__________ is the inner lining of a blood vessel
*cappilaries only have this


_____________ are most abundant in WBC


_____________ and ______________ are active phagocytes

neutrophils and macrophanges

Several different chemicals released by microbes and inflamed tissues attract phagocytes, a phenomonon called ____________.


________________=macrophanges(big eater)


____________ take longer to arrive but arrive in larger numbers and destroys more microbes
-monocytes enlarge and differentiate into macrophanges.


_____________ enlarge and differentiate into macrophanges.


_________(least abundant in WBC's)-leave capillaries and release granules containing, histamine at sites of inflammation.


what type of WBC is involved with Intensity inflammatory reaction, involved in hypersensitivity reactions (allergies)


_____________ are (2nd least abundant WBC)-leave capillaries and enter tissue fluid
-allergic reactions
-effective against certain parasitic worms
-elevated in autoimmune diseases (own cells attack themselves)


____________ are the 2nd most abundant WBC
-major "soldiers" of immune system


__________ cells (bone marrow)-destroy bacteria and inactivating their toxins
-become plasma cells→make antibodies (also known as humeral immunity)
-memory cells-can remember virus or bacteria (ex: chickenpox)

B cells

___________(thymus gland)-attack viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancer cells and some bacteria
-cells mediated immunity

T cells

_________cells-attach a wide variety of infections microbes and certain tumor cells.
-cancer cells

-Natural killer (NK) cells

myeloid stem cells develop eventually into ____________.



blood clot

Name the 3 responses the stop bleeding and describe each.

1. vascular spasm-smooth muscle in artery or arteriole walls contracts

2.platelet plug formation
Platletes stick to parts of damaged blood vessels become activated and accumulate large numbers

3.blood clotting (coagulation)

What is blood serum. Describe it.

If blood is drawn outside the vessels it thickens and forms a gel. Blood plasma minus the clotting proteins. This separates the other part, gel called clot which contains insoluble proteins fibers called fibrin in which formed elements of the blood are trapped.

what is blood clotting

series of chemical reactions culminating in formation of fibrin threads

What is serum made of?

all the stuff in plasma minus clotting proteins

Discuss the 3 stages of blood clotting

1. formation of prothrombinase
2. Prothrombinase converts prothrombin into thrombin
3. Thrombin converts fibrinogen (soluble) into fibrin (insoluble) forming the threads of the clot.

prothrombinase and fibrinogen are made where?

in the liver

what are agglutinogens?

the surface of antigens composed of glycoproteins and glycolipids
-surface of RBC's contain genetically determined assortment of antigens

What determines blood groups?

based on presence or absence of various antigens

There are at least _____ blood groups and more then _____ antigens that can be detected on the surface of RBC.


Name the two major blood groups

ABO and Rh

What is the ABO group based on?

2 glycolipid antigens called A and B

People who have only antigen A have type ____ blood.


People who have antigen B have type ____ blood.


People who have both A and B antigens have type ______.


People who have neither A or B antigens have type _______.


A universal blood recipient has type ____ blood. While the universal donor has type _____blood


Blood plasma usually contains antibodies called _______ that react with the A or B antigens if the two are mixed. For example if you are blood type B you have ____ antigens or your red blood cells, and you have ___ antibodies in your blood plasma.


__________ float around and detect foreign substances and fight off


The cardiovascular system consists of ________,____________, and _________.

blood, heart, blood vessels

Blood has a _______ greater then water, and a pH of ________. Blood consists of about __% body weight and volume is ____ liters in adults


the ______ is the percentage of total blood volume occupied by red blood cells.


The formed elements in blood consist of red blood cells (____________), WBC (__________), and platelets (____________)


__________ is the formation of RBC's from hemopoietic stem cells in red bone marrow.


Myeloid stem cells form __________, ______, ______, and ________.

RBC, platlets, granulocytes, monocytes

Lymphoid stem cells give rise to _______


several __________ stimulate differentiation and proliferation of the various blood cells.

hemopoietic growth factors

What is the purpose of hemoglobin in RBC's?

to transport oxygen and some carbon dioxide

After phagocytosis of aged RBC's by microphanges, _________ is recycles.


RBC formation, called _______ occurs where?

occurs in red bone marow in adults

erythropoiesis is stimulated by ________, which stimulates the release of ___________ by the kidneys.


A reticulocyte count is a diagnostic test that indicates__________

the rate of erythropoiesis

What is the general function of WBC's?

combat inflamation and infection

what is the function of neutrophils and macrophanges and how do they do this?

combat inflamation and infection through phagocytosis

What does and eosinophil do?

combat effectivness of histamine in allergic reactions

What does phagocytize antigen-antibody do?

complexes and combat parasitic worms

What do basophils do?

liberate heparin, histamine, and serotonin in allergic reactions that intensify the inflammatory response

B lymphocytes, in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens differentiate into __________ that produce ______.

plasma cells

Antibodies attach to _______ and render them harmless.


What is the purpose of B lymphocytes?

combat infection and provide immunity

What is the purpose of T lymphocytes?

destroy foreign invaders directly.

What do NK natural killer cells do?

attack infectious microbes and tumor cells

Except for _____ which may live years, _______ usually live for only a few hours or a few days.


____________ are disc-shaped cell fragments that splinter from megakaryocytes.


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