Blood is a __________________ tissue that consists of cells and cell fragments surrounded by a ____________
liquid connective tissue
liquid extracellular matrix
Carbon dioxide and other wastes move from ____________ to _________ to blood.
Name the 3 general functions of blood and describe each.
1. transportation-gases, blood transports oxygen from lungs to cells of the body and carbon dioxide from body cells to lungs, nutrients from the GI tract, hormones, heat and waste products to various organs for elimination.
2. Regulation-circulating blood helps maintain homeostasis of all body fluids, helps regulate pH through use of buffers, adjust body temperature, ossmotic pressure influences water content in cells
3. protection-blood can clot, white blood cells prevent against disease by carrying phagocytosis
blood transports oxygen from the lungs, nutrition from the GI tract, which diffuse across _________ into the _________ and then into __________.
Describe vasodilation and vasconstriction.
push blood to where it is needed
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, particularly the large arteries, small arterioles, and veins.
Vasodilation refers to the widening of blood vessels resulting from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, particularly in the large arteries, smaller arterioles and large veins.
What 2 components make up whole blood?
1. blood plasma(a watery liquid extracellular matrix that contains dissolved substances)
2. formed elements(cells and cell fragments)
blood plasma is about 90% ______ and 8% ____(most of which are proteins). Principle solutes include ________(name several)
-albumins, globulins, fibrinogen, nutrients, vitamins, hormones, waste product
Proteins like __________ are to big to leak out of blood vessels-this creates _______________.
osmotic pressure (suction effect)
If you didn't have proteins like albumen in blood vessels what would happen?
all the fluid blood would leak out and your body would run out of blood.
Cells access nutrients, hormones, oxygen exchange, and fluid plasma through ______________.
Name 4 plasma proteins. Besides proteins, what other solutes are in blood plasma?
Proteins=albumins, globulins, gamma globulins (antibodies), fibrinogen
other solutes=electrolytes, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, gases and waste products
___________ is the liquid portion of blood and is a solvent that absorbs, transports, and releases heat
_____________ are responsible for osmotic pressure, major contributor to blood viscosity, transports hormones fatty acids and calcium, helps regulate pH
What are the 2 different categories of WBC's and name the cells in each.
1. Granular leukocytes
2. Agranular Leukocytes
-T and B lymphocytes and natural killer (NK)
__________is the primary site for hemopoesis in adults
red bone marrow-found inbetween trabicula of long flat bones, and the epipysis of long bones
________ cells have the ability to develop into many different types of cells.
pluripotent stem cells
Stem Cells In bone marrow __________ and ___________ into cells that give rise to blood cells.
-proliferate and differentiate
_______________do not divide once they leave red bone marrow
-exception is lymphocytes
What 2 types of stem cells are produced by Pluripotent stem cells?
1. myeloid stem cells
2. Lymphoid stem cells
_________________ give rise to red blood cells, platelets, monocytes, neurophils, eosinophils and basophils. ________________ give rise to lymphocytes
myeloid stem cells
Lymphoid stem cells
name 4 hemopoietic growth factors.
Colony-Stimulating factors (CSFs)-WBCs
If kidneys detect low oxygen levels, they secrete _________________ to make more RBCs
Red blood cells are strong and flexible allowing them to squeeze through _______ without rupturing.
hemoglobin contain protein called ______ which is composed of 4 polypeptide chains, and a nonprotein pigment called _______
blood flowing though capillaries picks up carbon dioxide, which combines with ___________ in the globin.
nitric oxide (NO) binds to _________, which releases NO causing ____________.
RBC are removed from circulation and destroyed by _________________ in the liver and spleen.
fixed phagocytic macrophanges
Breakdown products of RBC are recycled
___________ and ___________ are reused.
globin's amino acids and iron
_____________ends up as yellow pigment uronilin in urine
.......or brown pigment stercobilin in feces
when iron is removed from heme, the non iron portion of heme is converted to biliverdin and then into ________(yellow orange pigment).
Bilirubin enters the blood and is transported to ___________
the liver-then sm intestine, then large intestine
In the larger intestine bilirubin is converted into _____________. Some of the ______ is absorbed back into the blood as a yellow pigment called _________.
Most of the urobilinogen is eliminated in feces in the form of a brown pigment called __________.
Erythropoesis starts in the red bone marrow with a precursor cell called ______________.
cells near the end of the proerythroblast development ejects its nucleus and becomes a __________.
decrease O2 is sensed by the
_________________= increase in ____________, which increase RBC's
Describe a Neutrophil
WBC-respond most quickly to tissue damage by bacteria
-uses lysozymes, strong oxidants
_______________ is an increase in WBC's
due to normal protective response to invaders, strenuous exercise, anesthesia and surgery.
___________ is a decreases WBC's...is never beneficial (ex: AIDS). General function to combat invaders by phagocytosis or immune responses
Many WBC's leave the bloodstream which is called __________, in which they roll along the __________, stick to it, and then squeeze between _______________.
Several different chemicals released by microbes and inflamed tissues attract phagocytes, a phenomonon called ____________.
____________ take longer to arrive but arrive in larger numbers and destroys more microbes
-monocytes enlarge and differentiate into macrophanges.
_________(least abundant in WBC's)-leave capillaries and release granules containing, histamine at sites of inflammation.
what type of WBC is involved with Intensity inflammatory reaction, involved in hypersensitivity reactions (allergies)
_____________ are (2nd least abundant WBC)-leave capillaries and enter tissue fluid
-effective against certain parasitic worms
-elevated in autoimmune diseases (own cells attack themselves)
__________ cells (bone marrow)-destroy bacteria and inactivating their toxins
-become plasma cells→make antibodies (also known as humeral immunity)
-memory cells-can remember virus or bacteria (ex: chickenpox)
___________(thymus gland)-attack viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancer cells and some bacteria
-cells mediated immunity
_________cells-attach a wide variety of infections microbes and certain tumor cells.
-Natural killer (NK) cells
Name the 3 responses the stop bleeding and describe each.
1. vascular spasm-smooth muscle in artery or arteriole walls contracts
2.platelet plug formation
Platletes stick to parts of damaged blood vessels become activated and accumulate large numbers
3.blood clotting (coagulation)
What is blood serum. Describe it.
If blood is drawn outside the vessels it thickens and forms a gel. Blood plasma minus the clotting proteins. This separates the other part, gel called clot which contains insoluble proteins fibers called fibrin in which formed elements of the blood are trapped.
Discuss the 3 stages of blood clotting
1. formation of prothrombinase
2. Prothrombinase converts prothrombin into thrombin
3. Thrombin converts fibrinogen (soluble) into fibrin (insoluble) forming the threads of the clot.
what are agglutinogens?
the surface of antigens composed of glycoproteins and glycolipids
-surface of RBC's contain genetically determined assortment of antigens
There are at least _____ blood groups and more then _____ antigens that can be detected on the surface of RBC.
Blood plasma usually contains antibodies called _______ that react with the A or B antigens if the two are mixed. For example if you are blood type B you have ____ antigens or your red blood cells, and you have ___ antibodies in your blood plasma.
The cardiovascular system consists of ________,____________, and _________.
blood, heart, blood vessels
Blood has a _______ greater then water, and a pH of ________. Blood consists of about __% body weight and volume is ____ liters in adults
The formed elements in blood consist of red blood cells (____________), WBC (__________), and platelets (____________)
Myeloid stem cells form __________, ______, ______, and ________.
RBC, platlets, granulocytes, monocytes
several __________ stimulate differentiation and proliferation of the various blood cells.
hemopoietic growth factors
erythropoiesis is stimulated by ________, which stimulates the release of ___________ by the kidneys.
what is the function of neutrophils and macrophanges and how do they do this?
combat inflamation and infection through phagocytosis
What do basophils do?
liberate heparin, histamine, and serotonin in allergic reactions that intensify the inflammatory response
B lymphocytes, in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens differentiate into __________ that produce ______.
Except for _____ which may live years, _______ usually live for only a few hours or a few days.
What is the purpose of platelets?
stop blood loss from damages blood vessels by forming platelet plug
Describe a vascular spasm.
smooth muscle tissue of a blood vessel wall contracts, which slows blood loss
What is a clot?
a network of insoluble protein fibers (fibrin) in which formed elements of the blood are trapped
Name the 3 factors/stages involved with blood clotting
1. formation of prothrombinase
2. conversion of prothrombin into thrombin
3. conversion of soluble fibrinogen into soluble fibrin
normal coagulation involves vitamin ____ and is followed by _________, and ultimately ______.
clot retraction (tightening of clot)
fibrinolysis (dissolution of the clot)
ABO and Rh blood groups are genetically determined and based on ________________.
In Rh blood types people whos RBC have Rh antigens are classified as ___________, while people who lack Rh antigens are classified as _________.
non iron heme ends up as a yellow pigment called _________________, or a brown pigments called ____________/
____________________(waste product of red blood cells)→to liver, decrease bile, sm. intestines
A decrease in O2 is sensed by the ___________, which then increase in ______________, which increase RBC's
______________is a normal protective response to invaders, strenuous exercise, anesthesia and surgery.
____________ is a general function to combat invaders by phagocytosis or immune responses.
the movement of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) toward inflammation (from tissue injury) as a direct result of chemicals released by the tissue to attract the neutrophils towards it. neutrophils have the ability to phagotose any microbes (eat and destroy them)
________________are most abundant in WBC-1st to the scene of infection and start process of phagocytosis
__________ get to the scene first, but ____________ comes later and have a bigger overall effect on chemotaxis