Unit 3 Study Guide

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Terms in this set (...)

Abiotic Factors
non-living chemical or physical factors in the environment, such as soil, pH, forest fire, etc.
Biome
a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat, e.g. forest or tundra
Biodiversity
The number and variety of different species in a given area
Biotic Factors
all living organisms in the environment, such as plants, animals, fungi, etc.
Carrying Capacity
the largest population that an ecosystem can support over time
Community
a group of different species living and interacting within one Region
Ecosystem
all of the living things (plants, animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (weather, earth, sun, soil, climate, atmosphere); a community of the interdependent organisms and their environment
Habitat
the natural home or environment of an animal, plant, or other organism
Invasive Species
an organism (plant, animal, fungus, or bacterium) that is not native and has negative effects on the economy, environment, or health of the native ecosystem
Limiting Factors
abiotic or biotic factors that restrict the growth of a population (Ex: food, shelter and temperature).
Niche
The combination of behaviors and resources that an organism is adapted to exploit
Organism
an individual life form
Population
Organisms of the same species that share the same habitat
Predator
an animal that naturally preys on others
Prey
an animal that is hunted or seized by an animal for food
Species
a unit of basic biological classification
Apex predators
organisms with no natural predators of their own, residing at the top of their food chain
Carnivore
an organism that eats other animals to obtain energy
Cellular respiration
The process in which cells derive energy from organic compounds. Many animals have to use cellular respiration in order to derive energy.
Consumers
An organism that feeds on other organisms
Competition
the activity or condition of striving to gain or win something by defeating or establishing superiority over other living things and the environment
Decomposers:
an organism that obtains energy and food from decaying organic matter
Food Chain
A model that describes how matter and energy is transferred from one organism to another
Food Web
An interrelated group of food chains in a community
Herbivores
a consumer that eats plants
Omnivores
a consumer that can eat both plants and animals
Photosynthesis
the process by which organisms make organic compounds by using the energy in sunlight.
Phytoplankton
usually microscopic photosynthetic organisms, algae and diatoms; mostly, found in water
Producer
A photosynthetic or chemosynthetic organism that makes its own food
Scavenger
an animal that feeds on carrion (dead animals), dead plant material, or refuse
Trophic level
a feeding level in a food chain such as primary consumers and decomposers
Zooplankton
usually microscopic, non-photosynthetic plankton consisting of animals and animal-like organisms
Ecology
the study of the Interactions among Living Things and the environment
Biomass
the total amount of biotic factors in a material area
Chlorophyll
Green pigments found in photosynthetic organisms. Chlorophyll is present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, which is responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis
Chemosynthesis
making organic compounds using energy released from chemicals-- an example is tube worms. Deep sea vents on the ocean floor spill out chemicals that organisms use to make food since they are not exposed to the sun.
Substrate
A surface on which an organism can live, grow, and gather energy. Also a submerged surface area where quagga mussels can live.