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Chapter 9: The Progressive Era
Terms in this set (71)
Aimed to restore economic opportunities and correct injustices in American life. Unsafe factory conditions for workers including women and children, the dominant role of large corporations and struggling to make the government more responsive to the people.
1) Protecting social welfare: Worked to soften harsh conditions of industrialization. YMCA opened libraries, sponsored classes and built swimming pools/courts, the Salvation Army fed poor people in soup kitchens, cared for children, etc.
2) Promoting moral improvement: Wanted immigrants/poor city dwellers to uplift themselves by improving personal behavior
3) Creating economic reform: Americans questioned the capitalist economic system. Workers started to embrace socialism.
4) Fostering efficiency: Progressive leaders put their faith in experts/scientific principles to make society/the workplace more efficient and fast.
She became an advocate for improving the lives of women and children. She was appointed chief inspector of factories for Illinois after she helped win the passage of the Illinois Factory Act in 1893 - prohibited child labor/limited women's working hours. She pushed the government to solve America's social problems. In 1899, she became general secretary of the National Consumers' League to improve factory conditions.
The banning of alcoholic beverages. This was part of promoting moral improvement. Prohibitionists feared that alcohol was undermining American morals.
He transformed the WCTU from a small midwestern religious group to a national organization when momentum grew stronger. "do everything" slogan.
Women's Christian Temperance Union, founded in Cleveland in 1874 - spearheaded the crusade for prohibition. They entered saloons, singing, praying, and urging saloonkeepers to stop selling alcohol. They grew to become the largest women's group in the nation's history with over 245,000 members by 1911. They opened kindergartens for immigrants, visited inmates, and worked for suffrage.
Quietly founded by progressive women in 1895 - called themselves "the church in action against the saloon." They worked to pass laws to force people to change and punish those who drank. It organized statewide referendums to ban alcohol. Between 1900 and 1917, voters in nearly half of the states prohibited the sale, production, and use of alcohol.
Critics of laissez-faire
Eugene V. Debs/socialists
He helped organize the American Socialist Party in 1901. He commented on the uneven balance among big businesses, government, and ordinary people under the free-market system of capitalism.
Journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life in mass circulation magazines during the early 20th century.
Ida M. Tarbell
Wrote "History of the Standard Oil Company" - described the company's cutthroat methods of eliminating competition.
Scientific management/ "Taylorism"
Frederick Winslow Taylor began using time and motion studies to improve efficiency by breaking manufacturing tasks into simpler parts. "Taylorism" became a management fad as industry reformers applied these scientific management studies to see how quickly each task could be performed. The assembly line speeded things up, but it required workers to work like machines, which caused a high worker turnover due to injuries.
He reduced the workday to eight hours and paid workers five dollars a day. This attracted thousands of workers and prevented strikes.
Local government reform
Cities needed the most government reform. Political bosses rewarded their supporters with jobs and kickbacks and openly bought votes with favors and bribes. There was a desire to make the government more efficient/responsive. Natural disasters prompted much reform to rebuild the city governments. The hurricane and tidal wave that nearly destroyed Texas made experts appoint a five member commission to take over. Many cities adopted this idea. The flood in Ohio led to the wide-spread adoption of the council manager form of government. People elected a city council to make laws. Now, managers were administering nearly 250 cities with this new set up.
Pingree and Johnson, two mayors, introduced progressive reforms without changing how government was organized. Pingree concentrated on economics and instituted a fairer tax structure, lowered fares for public transportation, rooted out corruption and set up a system of work relief for the unemployed. City workers built schools, parks, etc. Johnson worked to institute progressive reforms in cities. They focused on dismissing corrupts/greedy private owners of utilities and converted them to publicly owned enterprises. He believed that citizens should play a more active role in the government.
Attacked big businesses, Robert M. La Follette, Charles B. Aycock, James S. Hogg. Government reform drew increased numbers of women into public life, focused on the issue of woman suffrage, and gave americans more of a voice in electing their legislators/creating laws.
Robert La Follette
"Fighting Bob", Republican, led the way in fighting big businesses. He served three terms as governor before he entered the U.S Senate in 1906. He wanted to drive corporations out of politics. His major target was the R.R industry - taxed R.R property at the same rate as other business property, set up a commission to regulate rates, and forbade R.R's to issue free passes to state officials.
Reform workers wanted to protect children working in factories. Businesses hired children because they performed unskilled jobs fork owed wages and their hands were more adapt to holding smaller parts and tools. Immigrants and rural migrants sent their children to work in factories because wages were very low for adults so every family member needed to help out. Children were more prone to accidents and developing serious health issues and stunted growth.
Also called the Australian Ballot, a voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum are anonymous, prevents attempts to influence the voter by intimidation/vote buying.
Initiative, referendum, recall
Initiative: A bill originated by the people rather than lawmakers, gave the power for citizens to create laws
Referendum: A vote on the initiative, gave the power for citizens to create laws
Recall: Enabled voters to remove public officials from elected positions by forcing them to face another election before the end of their term if enough voters asked for it.
17th Amendment/Direct election of senators
The 17th Amendment provides for the election of U.S Senators by the people rather than by state legislatures, 1913. Before this, each state's legislature had chased its own U.S senators, which gave more power to party bosses/wealthy corporation heads. Progressives pushed for the popular election of senators.
Cult of domesticity
Late 19th century only middle/upper class women had the luxury of not working on a farm
Women on farms in the South/Midwest not only worked on household tasks, but also handled raising livestock, plow, plant the fields, and harvest the crops.
Cook, maid, governess, laundress. Women without formal education or industrial skills contributed to the economic survival of their families by doing this work - cleaning for other families, etc. Almost 2 million african american women freed from slavery, unmarried immigrant women, roughly 70% of women employed were servants.
Women in industry
Women had new opportunities for better paying jobs in towns/cities. They held the least skilled positions, but received about half as much as their male counterparts, or less. Women began to fill new jobs in offices, stores, and classrooms - required high school education. (Women high school grads outnumbered men)
Women in higher education
Women who became active in public life in 19th century had attended the new women's colleges; Vassar College began accepting in 1865, Smith and Wellesley in 1875, Columbia, Brown and Harvard opened separate colleges for women. Almost half of college educated women in the late 19th century applied their skills to social reforms.
Women and reform
Uneducated laborers started efforts to reform workplace health and safety - educated women who participated strengthened reform groups/provided leadership for new groups. They strove to improve conditions at work/home.
National Association of Colored Women
In 1896, african american women founded the NACW by merging two earlier organizations. They managed nurseries, reading rooms, and kindergartens.
The right to vote
Susan B. Anthony
Leading proponent of woman suffrage
National American Women Suffrage Association
In 1869, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton founded the National Women Suffrage Association. It united with another group in 1890 to become the NAWSA. The liquor industry feared that women would vote in support of prohibition, while textile industry worried that women would vote for restrictions on child labor, and men feared the changing role of women in society.
Three-part strategy for suffrage
1) Suffragist leaders tried to convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote - achieved victory in Wyoming in 1869, and by 1890, Utah, Colorado, and Ohio also granted the right.
2) Women pursued court cases to test the Fourteenth Amendment (declared that states denying their male citizens the right to vote would lose congressional representation) In 1871/1872, Susan B. Anthony tested the question - weren't women citizens too? They attempted to vote at least 150 times in 10 states - sup. court ruled in 1875 that women were citizens, but denied that citizenship automatically granted the right to vote.
3) Women pushed for a national constitutional amendment to grant women the vote. 41 years - women loved to have it reintroduced, but kept getting voted down.
Upton Sinclair/The Jungle
Journalist, Muckraker, wrote The Jungle, 1904. He focused on the human condition in the stockyards of Chicago, he revealed the sickening conditions of the meatpacking industry.
Was not suppose to be president - 1900, young governor from NY was urged to run as McKinley's vice president by the state's political posses. They thought he was impossible to control. When McKinley was assassinated, he became president. He was born into a wealthy NY family in 1856. Suffered from asthma, but drove himself to accomplish demanding physical feats. He became a leader in NY politics - served three terms in the NY state assembly, then became NYC's police commissioner then assistant secretary of the U.S Navy. He was the youngest president ever at 42 years old in 1901
Roosevelt dominated the news with his exploits - He boxed while in office, one of his opponents blinded him in his left eye but he galloped 100 miles on horseback to prove the feat possible. Roosevelt acted boldly, using his personality/popularity to advance in his programs. His leadership/publicity campaigns helped create the modern presidency - making him a model for future presidents. he thought the government should assume control whenever states proved incapable of dealing with problems.
Roosevelt saw presidency as this. He could influence the news media/shape legislation.
Used to describe the various progressive reforms sponsored by the Roosevelt Administration.
1902 Coal Strike/Federal arbitration
140,000 coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike - demanded a 20% raise, 9 hour workday, and the right to organize a union. coal reserves ran low after 5 months. Roosevelt called both sides to the White House to talk and use an arbitration commission: a third party that would work with both sides to mediate the dispute. Miners won a 10% pay hike and a 9 hour workday. Roosevelt's actions demonstrated a new principle, from then on, when a strike threatened the public welfare, the federal government was expected to intervene. His actions also demonstrated the progressive belief that disputes could be settled in an orderly way.
Trustbusting/Good vs. bad trusts
Trusts: legal bodies created to hold stock in many companies. They controlled about 4/5 of the industries in the U.S by 1900's. Many trusts lowered their prices to drive competitors out of the market, then took advantage of the lack of competition to jack prices up even higher. Roosevelt did not think all trusts were bad, but he sought to curb the actions of those that hurt the public interest. He filed suits under the Sherman Antitrust Act. In 1902, he made newspaper headlines as a trustbuster when he ordered the Justice Department to sue the Northern Securities Company - they established a monopoly over northwestern R.R's, in 1904, the Supreme Court dissolved the company. The Roosevelt administration filed 44 antitrust suits, winning a number of them/breaking up some of the trusts, but they were unable to slow the merger movement of business.
Railroad regulation/Hepburn and Elkin Acts
Roosevelt's goal was federal regulation. In 1887, Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act - prohibited wealthy R.R owners from colluding to fix high prices by dividing the business in a given area. The Interstate Commerce Commission was set up to enforce the new law, but had little power. Roosevelt urged and congress passed the Elkins Act in 1903 - made it legal for R.R officials to give, and shippers to receive, rebates for using particular R.R's and specified that R.R's could not change set rates without notifying the public. The Hepburn Act of 1906 strictly limited the distribution of free R.R passes, a common form of bribery and gave the ICC peer to set max R.R rates.
Meat Inspection Act
Dictated strict cleanliness requirements for meatpackers/created the program of federal meat inspection that was in use until it was replace by more sophisticated techniques in the 1990's. Roosevelt contacted a commission of experts to investigate the meatpacking industry and pushed for this act.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906, Halted the sale of contaminated foods/medicines and called for truth in labeling. It did not ban harmful products completely, but its requirement of truthful labels reflected the progressive belief that five accurate info, people would act wisely.
Before Roosevelt, the federal government paid little attention to the nation's natural resources and preservation. Americans were shrinking the wilderness drastically. John Muir, a naturalist/writer with whom Roosevelt camped in California's Yosemite National Park in 1903, persuaded the president to set aside 148 million acres of forest reserves. He set aside 1.5 million acres of water-power sites and another 80 million acres of land that experts from the U.S Geological Survey would explore for mineral/water resources, and he established more than 50 wildlife sanctuaries/national parks.
Gifford Pinchot/Multi-use conservation
Roosevelt named Gifford Pinchot as head of the U.S Forest Service. He was a professional conservationist, he had administrative skill and scientific/technical information. He advised Roosevelt to conserve forest/grazing lands by keeping large tracts of federal land exempt form private sale. He and Roosevelt thought that some wilderness areas should be preserved, while others would be developed for the common good.
Newlands Act (National Reclamation Act) of 1902
Money from the sale of public lands in the West funded large-scale irrigation projects, such as the Roosevelt Dam in Arizona and the Shoshone Dam in Wyoming. It established the precedent that the federal government would manage the precious water resources of the west.
Civil Rights (Booker T. Washington vs W.E.B DuBois)
William Howard Taft
Roosevelt pledged not to run for reelection in 1908 - he handpicked his secretary of war, William Howard Taft, to run against William Jennings Bryan, who had been nominated by the Democrats for the third time. Taft never wanted to be president, after serving one term he left and taught constitutional law ay Yale for 8 years.
He busted 90 trusts in a four-year term. He hesitated to use the presidential bully pulpit to arouse public opinion, and could not subdue troublesome members of his own party.
Taft campaigned for lowering tariffs. When the White House passed the Payne Bill, which lowered rates on imported manufactured goods, the Senate proposed an alternative bill, the Aldrich Bill, which made fewer cuts and increased many rates. Taft signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff, a compromise that only moderated the high rates of the Aldrich Bill. This angered progressives who believed that Taft had abandoned progressivism.
Firing of Pinchot; Richard Ballinger
Taft angered conservationists by appointing Richard A. Ballinger, a wealthy lawyer from Seattle as his secretary of the interior. He disapproved of conservationist controls on western lands, removed 1 million acres of forest and mining lands from the reserved list and returned it to the public domain. Pinchot protested against this and accused Ballinger of letting commercial interests exploit the natural resources that rightfully belonged to the public. Taft sided with Ballinger and fired Pinchot from the U.S Forest Service.
"Uncle" Joe Cannon, House Speaker
Republican conservatives and progressives split over Taft's support of the political boss Joseph Cannon, "Uncle Joe", House Speaker from Illinois. He disregarded seniority in filling committee slots, and as chairman of the House Rules Committee, which decides what bills Congress considers, Cannon often weakened or ignored progressive bills. Reform-minded Republicans decided that they needed to strip Cannon of his power. Democrats helped and they succeeded in March 1910 with a resolution that called for the entire House to elect the Committee on Rules and exclude the speaker from membership in the committee.
Republican Party splits
By the midterm elections of 1910, the Republican Party was in shambles, with the progressives on one side and the "old guard" on the other. Voters voiced concern over the rising cost of living, which they blamed on the Payne-Aldrich Tariff. They also believed Taft to be against conservation. When the Republicans lost the election, the Democrats gained control of the House of Representatives for the first time in 18 years. This gave democrats their first real chance at the White House since the election of Cleveland in 1892. They put forward as their candidate Woodrow Wilson in 1912.
Bull Moose Party
The Progressive Party became known as this after Roosevelt's boast that he was "as strong as a bull moose". The parties platform called for the direct election of senators/the adoption in all states of the initiative, referendum and recall, advocated women suffrage, workmen's compensation, an 8 hour workday, a minimum wage for women, a federal law against child labor, and a federal trade commission to regulate business.
1912 presidential election
Wilson endorsed New Freedom, a progressive platform that demanded even stronger antitrust legislation, banking reform, and reduced tariffs. The election offered voters several choices: Wilson's New Freedom, Taft's conservatism, Roosevelt's progressivism, or the Socialist Party policies of Eugene V. Debs. Roosevelt and Wilson supported a stronger government role in economic affairs but differed over strategies. Roosevelt supported government action to supervise big business but did not oppose all business monopolies, while Debs wanted to end capitalism. Wilson supported small business/free-market competition/characterized all business monopolies as evil. Wilson captured 42% of the popular vote, but won an overwhelming electoral victory/democratic majority in congress.
Born in the South. Inaugurated on March 3, 1913. He claimed progressive ideals, but he had a different idea for the federal government. He believed in attacking large concentrations of power to give greater freedom to average citizens. Did not use federal power to fight off attacks directed at the civil rights of African Americans. Wilson spent his youth in the South during the Civil War/Reconstruction. He worked as a lawyer, history professor, and president of Princeton before entering politics. In 1910 he was the governor of NJ and supported progressive legislation programs like direct primary, worker's compensation, and the regulation of public utilities and R.R's.
Wilson planned to attack trusts, tariffs, and high finance
Clayton Antitrust Act/Pro-labor
1914, sought to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. It prohibited corporations from acquiring the stock of another if doing so would create a monopoly; if violated, officers could be prosecuted. It specified that labor unions/farm organizations not only had a right to exist, but would no longer be subject to antitrust laws. Strikes, peaceful picketing, boycotts, and strike benefits became legal. "Magna Carta for labor"
Federal Trade Act/FTC
The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 set up the Federal Trade Commission. This "watchdog" agency was given the power to investigate possible violations of regulatory statues, to require periodic reports from corporations, and to put an end to a number of unfair business practices. Under Wilson, the FTC administered almost 400 cease-and-desist orders to companies engaged in illegal activity.
Wilson lobbied hard for the Underwood Act in 1913 because it would substantially reduce tariff rates for the first time since the Civil War. Wilson knew that supporters of big business had not allowed such a reduction under Taft so he worked hard to lower tariffs.
16th Amendment/Income tax
The 16th Amendment was ratified in 1913, and legalized a federal income tax, which proved revenue by taxing individual earnings/corporate profits. The Federal govt had to replace the revenue that tariffs had previously supplied. Under this graduated tax, larger incomes were taxed at higher rates than smaller incomes. Few congressmen realized the potential of the income tax, but by 1917, the govt was receiving more money on the income tax than it had ever gained from tariffs.
Federal Reseve Act/System
The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 divided the nation into 12 districts/established a regional central bank in each district. Wilson new that the nation needed a way to strengthen the ways in which banks were run to keep the money supply in pace with the economy. The federal reserve banks could issue new paper currency in emergency situations, and member banks could use the new currency to make loans to their customers. Federal reserve banks could transfer funds to member banks in trouble, saving them from closing. 70% of the nation's banking resources were part of the Federal Reserve System - one of Wilson's most enduring achievements, and still serves as the basis of the nation's banking system.
Women's voting rights
Women grew more impatient with their voting rights. Three developments gave them success: The increased activism of local groups, the use of bold new strategies to build enthusiasm for the movement, and the rebirth of the national movement under Carrie Chapman Catt. Growing number of college-educated women gave new strength to the suffrage movement. Groups used door-to-door campaigns, took trolley tours, and spread the message to poor and working-class women.
Catt was Susan B. Anthony's successor as president of NAWSA and served from 1900-1905/resumed presidency in 1915. She concentrated on 5 tactics: 1) painstaking organization 2) close ties between local, state, and national workers 3) establishing a wide base of support 4) cautious lobbying 5)gracious, ladylike behavior
National Women's Party/Burns & Paul tactics
Lucy Burns and Alice Paul formed their own more radical organization for suffrage: the Congressional Union, and its successor, the National Woman's Party. They pressured the federal govt to pass a suffrage amendment, and by 1917, Paul had organized her followers to mount a ride-the-clock picket line around the White House. Some of the picketers were arrested, jailed and force-fed when they attempted a hunger strike.
19th Amendment/Women's vote
The 19th Amendment granted women the right to vote. It won final ratification in August 1920 - 72 years after women had first convened/demanded the vote at the Seneca Falls convention in 1848.
Wilson retreated on civil rights once in office. He won the support of the NAACP's black intellectuals and white liberals by promising to treat blacks equally/speak out against lynching. He opposed federal antilynching legislation, arguing that these crimes fell under state jurisdiction. The Capitol/federal offices in D.C resumed segregation after Wilson's election.
William Monroe Trotter/Guardian
He was the editor-in-chief of the Guardian, an African-American Boston newspaper. He complained that african americans from 38 states had asked the president to reverse the segregation of govt employees, but that segregation had since increased. He pointed fingers at Wilson, and Wilson demanded that the delegation leave and he refused to extend civil rights to african americans.
End of Progressivism
WW1 dominated most of Wilson's second term as president and the progressive era had come to an end.
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