Preserved most gains of the Revolution by recognizing principal equality of all citizens before the law, the right of induvidual to choose profession, religious toleration, abolition of serfadome and feudalism
Concordat of 1801
Recognized Catholicism as religion of majority of French people, but not the Nation. Pope agreed not to ask for former Church lands siezed by Revolution. Power of Church was supressed
Congress of Vienna
Goal of great powers: Britian, Austria, Russia and Prussia to try to restore old order after N was defeated. Met on September 1814 to arrange final peace settlement. Learder of congress was Austrian foreign minister, Prince Klemens von Metternich.
Lawful monarchs from royal families that have ruled before N, were to be restored their positions of power to keep peace and stability in Europe.
Political philosophy based on tradition and social stability. Most of time favored obedience to political authority and believed that oranized religion was cucial to order in society. Hated revolutions and unwilling to accept demands from people who wanted either individual rights or representative goverment
Principle of Intervention
Adopted by Great Powers, who had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimant monarchs to the throne. Britian refused it because it believed that they shouldn't interfere with internal affairs of other states.
Political philosophy based largley on Enlightenment principles. Held that people should be as free as possible from goverment restraint. Had common sense of political beliefs: protection of civil liberties, basic rights of all people, equality before law and freedom of assembly, speech, and press. Believed that all those freedoms should be garunteed in a written document
Powerful force of change in 19th century. Arouse out of awearness of being part of community with common institutions, traditions, language and customs. Community was to be called a Nation, chief political loyality was owed to nation rather then to dynasty, city- states, or other political unit
Klemens von Metternich
1773- 1859. Austrian statesmen. Great symbol of conservatism in first half of 19th century. Joined Austrian diplomatic service in 1794. Made Austrian foreign minister in 1809. Fled to England when revolution errupted in 1848